Monthly Archives: November 2017

SOLAS V and Steering Gear

Navsregs>SOLAS>SOLAS V>Steering Gear

Stern of Isle of Wight Ferry Leaving Portsmouth

Another Regulation of SOLAS V-Safety of Navigation-explored

And so the wader through SOLAS V continues with its equipment related theme. This time its the steering gear, and in particular. the tests an Officer of the Watch must conduct.

Regulation 26-Steering gear- Testing and Drills

This Regulation within SOLAS V contains the requirements for the pre-sailing tests of steering gear tests.

Click here for the UK MCA guidance on Regulation 26>

When should the pre-departure testing of steering gear be conducted?

It should be tested within 12 hours before departure

What equipment should include within the steering gear testing procedure?

  • The main steering gear
  • The auxiliary steering gear
  • The remote steering gear control systems
  • The steering positions located on the navigation bridge
  • The emergency power supply
  • The rudder angle indicators in relation to the actual position of the rudder
  • The remote steering gear control system power failure alarms
  • The steering gear power unit failure alarms
  • The automatic isolating arrangements and other automatic equipment

What tests and checks should be included in the steering gear testing procedures?

  • The full movement of the rudder according to the required capabilities of the steering gear
  • A visual inspection for the steering gear and its connecting linkage
  • The operation of the means of communication between the navigation bridge and steering gear compartment

Movement-Visual-Communications

The flag state may waive the requirements to carry out the checks and tests for ships which regularly engage on short voyages. Such ships shall carry out these checks and tests at least once every week.

How often should the emergency steering gear be tested?

Emergency steering drills shall take place at least once every three months.

These drills shall include

  • Direct control within the steering gear compartment
  • The communications procedure with the navigation bridge
  • Where applicable, the operation of alternative power supplies

The date upon which the checks and tests are carried out and the date and details of emergency steering drills carried shall be recorded.

What should be displayed regarding the steering gear change over procedures?

A simple operating instructions with a block diagram showing the change-over procedures for remote steering gear control systems. This shall be permanently displayed on the navigation bridge and in the steering compartment.

Note: All ships’ officers concerned with the operation and/or maintenance of steering gear shall be familiar with the operation of the steering systems fitted on the ship and with the procedures for changing from one system to another.

Car ferry manouvering

In addition to the testing requirements, SOLAS V contains a short regulation requiring the use of more than one steering gear.

SOLAS V Regulation 25-Operation of Steering Gear

When should more than one steering gear be used?

In areas where navigation demands special caution,  when steering gear units are capable of simultaneous operation.

Click here for MCA guidance on Regulation 25>

A diversion beyond SOLAS V into the Construction section of the convention gives the performance standards required when testing the steering gear.

SOLAS II-1 Regulation 29-Steering Gear

How quick should a rudder turn?

At maximum ahead service speed the rudder must be capable of putting the rudder over:

From 35° on one side to 35° on the other side

and

From 35° on either side to 30° on the other side in not more than 28 seconds.

The auxiliary steering gear shall be of adequate strength and capable of steering the ship at navigable speed and be capable of putting the rudder over from 15° on one side to 15° on the other side in not more than 60 seconds at one half of the maximum ahead service speed or 7 knots, whichever is the greater.

Other online sources of information


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What are the requirements for VDRs?

Navsregs>SOLAS>SOLAS V>VDRs

Radars , radios and lights on ship's gantry mast

Voyage Data Recorders- the Maritime’Black box’

A quick guide to  The SOLAS requirements

The blog now returns to the series of posts on SOLAS V with a topic that follows on nicely from the last post on MAIB accident reporting requirements.

SOLAS V-Regulation 20 – Voyage Data Recorders

Click here for the UK MCA guidance of Regulation 20>

Why are VDRs required?

To assist in casualty investigations.

VDR Capsule as shown on IMO website, click to visit the site

Click For IMO page on VDRs

Click here for the IMO page on VDRs>

Which ships require to be fitted with an SDR?

Ships, when engaged on international voyages:

  • All passenger ships
  • Ships, other than passenger ships, of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2002

Which ships must be fitted with a VDR or a simplified voyage data recorder (S-VDR)?

  • Cargo ships of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards

Non-passenger ships on or above 3000 GT built after July 2002, and all passanger ships must have a VDR. Non-passenger ships built before July 2002 must have either a VDR or SVDR.  SDRs are Simplified data recorders that have less inputs then a full VDR.

What is a VDR?

Full information can be found at:

What is a VDRs Purpose

To maintain a store, in a secure and retrievable form, information concerning the position, movement, physical status, command and control of a ship over the period leading up to and following an incident.

This information is for use during any subsequent safety investigation to identify the causes of the incident.

Click here for MSC 1024-GUIDELINES ON VOYAGE DATA RECORDER (VDR)
OWNERSHIP AND RECOVERY

Who should the VDR information be made available to?

Information contained in a VDR should be made available to both the Administration and the shipowner.

What is included within the term ‘VDR’?

The complete system, including:

  • Any items required to interface with the sources of input signals and their processing and encoding
  • The final recording medium
  • The playback equipment
  • The power supply and dedicated reserve power source

img_20160915_132855_hdr_kindlephoto-117081169.jpg

What must a VDR do?

  • Continuously maintain sequential records of pr-selected data items relating to the status and output of the ship’s equipment, and command and control of the ship
  • Allow analysis of factors surrounding an incident
  • Include functions to perform a performance test at any time

The final recording medium should consist of the following items:

  • Fixed recording medium-Capable of being accessed after an accident- maintain data for 2 years after termination
  • Float-free recording medium;-6 months after termination,this is to  transmit a homing signal
  • Long-term recording medium- Accessible internaly

What Data items are to be recorded?Main mast

  • Date and time– From an external source
  • Ship’s position-From electronic position fixing system
  • Speed– over water and over ground
  • Heading– As ship’s heading source
  • Bridge audio-Covering all bridge workstations. At least 2 channels
  • Communications audio– On separate channel
  • Radar-Main displays of both radar installations
  • ECDIS-Record the display of ECDIS in use as primary means of navigation
  • Echo sounder– Depth information
  • Main alarms– Status of mandatory alarms
  • Rudder order and response– Includes settings of heading or track controller
  • Engine and thruster order and response-positions of any engine telegraphs or direct engine/propeller/Thruster controls, feedback indications and the control station in use
  • Hull openings status– To include all mandatory status information required to be carried on the bridge
  • Watertight and fire door status— To include all mandatory status information required to be carried on the bridge
  • Accelerations and hull stresses- When a ship is fitted with hull stress and response monitoring equipment
  • Wind speed and direction– Where a ship is fitted with a suitable sensor, wind speed and direction
  • AIS- All AIS data should be recorded
  • Rolling motion– If electronic inclinometer

What is a S-DVR?

A simplified voyage data recorder that fulfils the same requirements of an VDR, but with less inputs. They can be carried by cargo ships of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards instead of a VDR built after July 2002.

For full information see

IMO  RESOLUTION MSC.163(78)- PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR SHIPBORNE SIMPLIFIED VOYAGE DATA RECORDERS (S-VDRs)

What data items need to be recorded by a S-VDR?

  • Date and time– From an external source
  • Ship’s position-From electronic position fixing system
  • Speed– over water and over ground
  • Heading– As ship’s heading source
  • Bridge audio-Covering all bridge workstations. At least 2 channels
  • Communications audio– On separate channel
  • Radar data,- Main displays of of radar installations
  • AIS Data-If it is impossible to obtain radar data3 then AIS target data should be recorded as a source of information regarding other ships. If radar data is recorded,, AIS information may be recorded additionally as a  secondary source of information
  • Other items– Any additional data items required for a VDR should be recorded when the data is available.

Surveys and inspections

For more information see:

What test is the VDR and SDV-R subject to?

The voyage data recorder system, including all sensors, shall be subjected to an annual performance test.  The test shall be conducted by an approved testing or servicing facility

What is the objective of the annual VDR test?

  • To verify the accuracy, duration and recoverability of the recorded data
  • To determine the serviceability of all protective enclosures and devices fitted to aid location

A copy of the certificate of compliance issued by the testing facility, stating the date of compliance and the applicable performance standards, shall be retained on board the ship.


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Marine Incident Reporting- what does MGN 564 say?

A Handy Summary to MGN 564 on Marine Casualty and Marine Incident Reporting.

A shipwreck near Port Stanley

A Quick break from SOLAS V posts to look at a new important M Notice from the UK MAIB.Click to view the MGN on the UK GOV website

The UK MAIB has recently issued a new M Notice MGN 564(M + F) on  Marine Casualty and Marine Incident Reporting. This explains what accidents and near misses needs to be reported to the Marine Accident Investigation Branch.

Recommend sources of information

The M Notice

What ships are required to report incidents?

  • A UK ship
  • A ship is within UK waters and carrying passengers to/from the UK
  • The marine casualty or marine incident occurs within the jurisdiction of a UK harbour master

Which other organisations are required to report incidents?

  • Harbour authorities, for occurrences in or adjacent to their harbour area
  • The person, authority or body having responsibility for an inland waterway

Which vessels do not have to report?

  • Recreational craft hired on a bareboat basis
  • Commercial craft or boats <8m length overall that are operating in a harbour or on an inland waterway, which are not carrying passengers
  • Unless the marine casualty involves an explosion, fire, or capsize of a power driven vessel, or results in death, serious injury or severe pollution

A pleasure vessel (though notifications are welcomed).Click to view MAIB accident reports

The definition of a pleasure vessel is covered later in this post.

What has to be reported?

  • Marine casualties
  • Marine incidents

What is a marine casualty?

  • An event or sequence of events that occurred directly in connection with the operation of a ship, and resulted in:
  • Death
  • A serious injury to, a person that renders the person unable to perform their usual duties for greater 72 hours, or requires their admittance to a hospital / medical facility for greater than 24 hours
  • The loss of a person from a ship
  • The loss, presumed loss or abandonment of a ship.
  • Material damage to a ship. This means the structural integrity, performance or operational characteristics of the ship or infrastructure are significantly affected, and requires major repair or replacement of a major component or components
  • The ship being unfit to proceed, or requires flag state approval or a condition of class before it may proceed
  • At sea, a breakdown of the ship, requiring towage.
  • The stranding or disabling of a ship, or the involvement of a ship in a collision
  • Material damage to marine infrastructure external of a ship that could seriously endanger the safety of the ship, another ship or any individual
  • Pollution, caused by damage to a ship or ships

What is a marine incident?

A marine incident means an event, or sequence of events, which occurred directly in connection with the operation of a ship, that do not meet the criteria to be classified as a marine casualty but that endangered or, if not corrected would endanger, the safety of the ship, its occupants or any other person or the environment.

Examples of marine incidents include:

  • Close-quarters situations where urgent action was required to avoid collision.
  • Any event that had the potential to result in a serious injury.
  • A fire that did not result in material damage.
  • An unintended temporary grounding on soft mud, where there was no risk of stranding or material damage.
  • A person overboard who was recovered without serious injury.
  • Snagging of fishing gear resulting in a dangerous heel

What is not to be reported?

There is no requirement to report:

  • Defects to equipment and vessel detentions, unless they are related to a marine casualty or marine incident
  • Injuries to passengers that did not result from activities connected with the operation of the vessel. For example: a passenger suffering a fall on board a ship, where the ship’s movement, design, or acts or omissions by crew were not contributing factors
  • Damage or injuries occurring ashore, including the quayside, which do not involve the ship’s equipment
  • A deliberate act or omission that is intended to cause harm to the safety of a ship, an individual (e.g. assault, suicide or homicide) or the environment

When is the report to be made?

All marine casualties and marine incidents must be notified to the MAIB as soon as practicable by the quickest means available. Notification must not be delayed until the completion of an internal company investigation.

How is the report to be made?

  • By telephone to  MAIB’s 24 hour accident reporting line.
  • By submitting an Accident Report Form (ARF)

Rocky coastline in Cornwall

Pleasure vessels

What is a pleasure vessel?

A vessel which is:

Wholly owned by an individual or individuals and used only for the sport or Small craft at Portsmouth Hard, HMS Warrior in the backgroundpleasure of the owner or the immediate family or friends of the owner

Or

Owned by a body corporate and used only for the sport or pleasure of employees or officers of the body corporate, or their immediate family or friends

And

Is on a voyage which the owner is not paid for.

The Merchant Shipping (Accident Reporting and Investigation) Regulations 2005 contains more details and explanation of a pleasure vessel.

Incident reporting and SOLAS

Click here for the IMO page on casualty investigation>

What SOLAS regulation requires accident investigation?NAVSREGSOLASCover

SOLAS 1 Regulation 21 requires each Administration to conduct an investigation of any casualty occurring to any of its ships when it judges that such an investigation may assist in determining what changes in the present regulations might be desirable.

What is the Casualty investigation code?

This is a code that Administrations must follow when investing marine incidents. It is introduced by SOLAS Chapter XI-1, Regulation 6 -Additional Requirements for the Investigation of Marine Casualties and Incidents.

Click here for a copy of the code>


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What are the Carriage requirements for shippborne Navigation systems and equipment?

Navsregs>SOLAS>SOLAS V>Navigation Equipment Carriage Requirements

 A Quick Guide to SOLAS V Regulations 19

A ferry enclosed Navigation Bridge

This series of posts on SOLAS V continues with a quick guide on the requirements for the carriage of Navigation equipment. 

General

What regulation covers the Carriage requirements for ship’s navigation systems?

SOLAS V, Regulation 19- Carriage requirements for shipborne navigational systems and equipment.

What equipment is included within the regulation?

Click here to view the Regulation on the UK MCA website>

What ships need to comply with SOLAS V?

  •  New ships (1 July 2002) must comply fully with the requirements of this regulation.
  •  Existing ships may continue to comply with the regulations in force before 1 July 2002 except that they must be fitted with a GNSS receiver (which replaces the requirement for a RDF receiver) and AIS in accordance with a specified timetable

Click here for a table on the UK MCA website of carriage requirements>

Direction and SpeedEnclosed bridge wing

Compasses

What is the requirement to carry a Magnetic compass?

All ships irrespective of size shall have:

  • A properly adjusted standard magnetic compass or other means, independent of any power supply to determine the ship’s heading and display the reading at the main steering position
  • A pelorus or compass bearing device, or other means, independent of any power supply to take bearings over an arc of the horizon of 360°
  • Means of correcting heading and bearings to true at all times

All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition be fitted with:

  • A spare magnetic compass interchangeable with the magnetic compass, or other means to perform the function referred to by replacement or duplicate equipment

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition:

  • A properly adjusted transmitting heading device, or other means to transmit heading information for input to specified equipment

Ferry bridge from astern

What are the requirements to carry a Gyro Compass?

All ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A gyro compass, or other means, to determine and display their heading by shipborne non-magnetic means, being clearly readable by the helmsman at the main steering position. These means shall also transmit heading information for input to specified equipment.
  • A  gyro compass heading repeater, or other means, to supply heading information visually at the emergency steering position if provided
  • A gyro compass bearing repeater, or other means, to take bearings, over an arc of the horizon of 360º, using the gyro compass or other means. However ships less than 1,600 gross tonnage shall be fitted with such means as far as possible

Heading Control

What is the requirement for a heading or track control systems?BridgeandMoon

All ships of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A heading or track control system, or other means, to automatically control and keep to a heading and/or straight track

All ships of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall have:

  • A rate of turn indicator, or other means, to determine and display the rate of turn

Speed

What is the requirement to carry speed monitoring equipment?

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and all passenger ships:

  • Speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance through the water

All ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards:

  • Rudder, propeller, thrust, pitch and operational mode indicators, or other means to determine and display rudder angle, propeller revolutions, the force and direction of thrust and, if applicable, the force and direction of lateral thrust and the pitch and operational mode, all to be readable from the conning position

All ships of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards have:

Condor Ferry leaving Portsmouth

  • A speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance over the ground in the forward and athwartships direction

Navigation

Charts and publications

What is the requirement for a ship to carry navigational Charts?

Vessels of any size shall carry:

  • Nautical charts and nautical publications to plan and display the ship’s route for the intended voyage and to plot and monitor positions throughout the voyage.
  • An electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) is also accepted as meeting the chart carriage requirements
  • A back-up arrangement  if this function is partly or fully fulfilled by electronic means

An appropriate folio of paper nautical charts may be used as a back-up arrangement for ECDIS.

What is the requirement to carry ECDIS?

Ships engaged on international voyages shall be fitted with an Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) as follows:

Ships built since 2012

  •  Passenger ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July Commodore Clipper's bidge2012
  • Tankers of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2012
    Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2013
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 10,000 gross tonnage constructed on or after 1 July 2014
  • Passenger ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2012, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2014

Ships built prior to 2012

  • Tankers of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2012, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2015
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2013, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2016
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 20,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 50,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1 July 2013, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2017
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 20,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1 July 2013, not alter than the first survey on or after 1 July 2018

Click here for a copy of resolution A.817(19)>

Position Fixing

What position fixing must be carried?

  • A receiver for a global navigation satellite system or a terrestrial radio navigationMain mast system, or other means, suitable for use at all times throughout the intended voyage to establish and update the ship’s position by automatic means

What the requirement to carry an Echo Sounder?

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards:

  • An echo sounding device, or other electronic means, to measure and display the available depth of water

Collision Avoidance

Radar

What radar equipment must a ship carry?

If less than 150 gross tonnage and if practicable:

  • A radar reflector or other means, to enable detection by ships navigating by radar at both 9 and 3 GHZ

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships:

  • A 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of radar transponders and of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance
  • An electronic plotting aid, or other means, to plot electronically the range and bearing of targets to determine collision risk

All ships of 3000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A 3 GHz radar or where considered appropriate by the Administration a second 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance
  • A second automatic tracking aid, or other means to plot automatically the range
  • and bearing of other targets to determine collision risk

All ships of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • An automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA)  or other means, to plot automatically the range and bearing of at least 20 other targets, connected to a device to indicate speed and distance through the water, to determine collision risks and simulate a trial manoeuvre

CommunicationsSunset through a bridge window

Internal

What is the requirement for internal communications to steering positions?

  • A telephone, or other means, to communicate heading information to the emergency steering position, if provided

External

What must be fitted to an enclosed bridge?

  • When the ship’s bridge is totally enclosed and unless the Administration determines otherwise, a sound reception system, or other means, to enable the officer in charge of the navigational watch to hear sound signals and determine their direction

What  visual means of communication must be carried?

All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size:

  • A daylight signalling lamp, or other means to communicate by light during day and night using an energy source of electrical power not solely dependent upon the ship’s power supply

AIS

What ships must carry an AIS?Geared general cargo ship

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international voyages and cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards not engaged on international voyages and passenger ships irrespective of size shall be fitted with an automatic identification

What functions must an AIS provide?

  • Provide automatically to appropriately equipped shore stations, other ships and aircraft information, including the ship’s identity, type, position, course, speed, navigational status and other safety-related information
  • Receive automatically such information from similarly fitted ships;
  • Monitor and track ships
  • Exchange data with shore-based facilities

When Must AIS be used?

Ships fitted with AIS shall maintain AIS in operation at all times except where international agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of navigational information.

Click for UK MCA guidance on the use of AIS>

Click for IMO A 917(22) Guidelines for use of AIS

Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm System (BNAWS)

Which ships are required to carry a BNAWS?

  • All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and all passenger ship

When must a BNAWS be used?

The bridge navigational watch alarm system shall be in operation whenever the ship is underway at sea.

Click here for IACS requirements concerning navigation>

Click to search for the Bridge Procedures Guide on Amazon>


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Revision Guides for Mariners

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These guides by Navsbooks cover

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  • ISM code
  • Safe Seamanship
  • Ship certification

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