Author Archives: Navsbooks

SOLAS V and Nautical Charts

Navsregs>SOLAS>SOLAS V> Nautical Charts

Part of a UKHO chart showing CornwallCharts and publications are the next topic covered in this series on SOLAS and the safety of Navigation.

What SOLAS Regulation covers Nautical Charts and Publications?

SOLAS Regulation 27 – Nautical Charts and Nautical Publications.

What does SOLAS V Regulation 27 require?

That Nautical charts and nautical publications, necessary for the intended voyage, shall be:

  • Adequate;
  • Up to date.

Cover of UKCHO chart Maintenance Record

Click for UK MCA guidance on Regulation 27

Click for IMO page on charts

Click for ILO page on electronic charts

Click for IMO guidence on electronic charts

What is a nautical chart according to SOLAS?

Reg 2 of SOLAS V states that it is map or a specially compiled database from which such a map is derived. It also has to be issued officially by or on the authority of a Government, authorized Hydrographic Office or other relevant government institution and is designed to meet the requirements of marine navigation.

UK guidance states that a chart must be of such a scale and contain sufficient detail as clearly to show:

  • All navigational marks which may be used by a ship when navigating the waters which are covered by the chart;
  • All known dangers affecting those waters;
  • All information concerning any ships’ routeing and ship reporting measures applicable to those waters.

 Click for information about the UKHO

Some suggested books on Amazon

Search Amazon for books on chart symbols

Search Amazon for books on nautical charts

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SOLAS V and Manning

Navsregs>SOLAS>SOLAS V> Ship’s Manning

After an excursion into security and moorings this blog returns to explore SOLAS and the safety of Navigation. This it is a topic that overlaps with the certification series of posts, that of safe manning.

Dubai ships

Within SOLAS V is a Regulation that covers both manning levels and language.

What SOLAS Regulation covers ship’s manning?

SOLAS Chapter V Regulation 14.

Click here for UK MCA guidance on this regulation>

What does this regulation require Governments to do?

To maintain, or, if it is necessary, to adopt, measures for the purpose of ensuring that, from the point of view of safety of life at sea, all ships shall be sufficiently and efficiently manned.

For every  ship on international voyages the flag state shall:

  • Establish appropriate minimum safe manning following a transparent procedure, taking into account the relevant guidance adopted by the Organization;
  • Issue an appropriate minimum safe manning document or equivalent as evidence of the minimum safe manning.

Click here for IMO A.1047- Principles of Safe Manning>

Click here for a handy guide on the Safe Manning Document>

What does the Regulation say about a working language?

  • On all ships, to ensure effective crew performance in safety matters, a working language shall be established and recorded in the ship’s log-book;
  • The company, or the master, as appropriate, shall determine the appropriate working language;
  • Each seafarer shall be required to understand and, where appropriate, give orders and instructions and to report back in that language;
  • If the working language is not an official language of the Flag State, all plans and lists required to be posted shall include a translation into the working language.

Cargo ship bridge

What does the Regulation say about the language to be used for external communications?

On ships on international voyages English shall be used on the bridge as the working language for:

  • Bridge-to-bridge;
  • Bridge-to-shore safety communications;
  • Communications on board between the pilot and bridge watchkeeping personnel

This does not apply if those directly involved in the communication speak a common language other than English.

Click here for A 22/Res.918 IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases>

A Really Handy Range of Revision aids for Kindle


The Really Handy Range of books have been written for the Kindle format. They cover vessel certification, seamanship, ISM , IALA and the COLREGS.

Click here to learn more about the books>

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Maritime Security-An Index of Posts so Far


Before temporarily moving off to explore other topics I have put together a short  handy list of the Maritime Security related posts on Navsregs. More posts will no doubt be added, so follow this bog to catch them as they arrive.

Index of Security Posts


A Really Handy Guide to Ship Certification-Part 3

Keeping vessels safe

Cover of the Really handy Guide to Ship Certification, part 3.

The third book of the Handy Guide series on vessel certification covers the SOLAS and security certificates, including SAFCON, CSSC, PSSC, ISPS and a diversion into the subject of HSSC.

Click here for the book’s Amazon page>


Mooring Safety-A handy Summary of MGN 592

A quick detour in this blog , a detour away from Maritime Security to look at Mooring safety, a detour instigated by the issue by the UK MCA of a new M Notice. 

Mooring, towing or hauling equipment on all vessels

The UK Maritime and Coastguard Agency have recently re-issued their guidance on mooring operations in the form of a new M Notice-  MGN 592, which replaces MGN 308.

Click here for MGN 592>

The notice contains some really useful information on mooring equipment and its use, information that is useful to all those involved in vessel’s mooring operations even those sailing under non UK flags.

“Greater emphasis should be given to considering the safety aspects of mooring and towing systems as a whole rather than the individual safety aspects of component parts.” MGN 592


Design and Installation of Mooring Equipment

How should winches of windlasses be designed?

Load-They should be constructed to give warning of undue strains by stalling at well below the designed maximum safe working load of the weakest element in the system and to afford further protection by walking back at about the design load- that is the  breaking strength of the mooring rope, tow line, or hawser whichever is applicable,

Layout-The layout should be such as to avoid the need for anyone to be stationed or work in the bight or warp of rope formed by the lead from the winch or windlass round and through the fairleads and over-side.

Failure-The consequences of failure in any part of the system should be carefully considered and effective precautions taken.


How should pedestal roller fairleads, lead bollards, and mooring bitts be designed?

  • Be properly designed to meet all foreseeable operational loads and conditions;
  • Be Correctly sited to minimise the need for complex mooring line configurations;
  • As far as reasonably practicable, a dedicated fairlead should be provided for each mooring line;
  • Be effectively secured to a part of the ship’s structure which is suitably strengthened.

Repair and maintenance

What must owners, operators, masters and skippers should ensure?

  • That all mooring, towing and hauling equipment are covered by a regular maintenance programme.
  • That equipment should be regularly inspected for wear, damage, deflection and corrosion.


What are the maintenance requirements for ropes?

  • All ropes, wires, and stoppers that are used for hauling, towing or mooring operations should be in good condition;
  • Ropes should be frequently inspected for both external wear and tear between strands;
  • Wires should be regularly treated with suitable lubricants and inspected
    for deterioration internally and broken strands externally;
  • Splices in both ropes and wires should be inspected regularly to check they are intact.

What should be considered when deck repairs are undertaken?

  • Particular care should be taken when repairing deck areas, especially those fitted with bollards or equipment requiring a strong substantial base;
  • Classed ships must carry out such repairs with the knowledge of, and under the supervision of Class;
  • Ships under certification by a Certifying Authority Should undertake such repairs in a similar way.

Safe Use of Equipment:


What Precautions to be taken before and during mooring, towing and hauling operations?

  • All operations should be pre-planned, and a risk assessment of the operation should be completed, especially  where unusual or non-standard mooring arrangements are to be used;
  • Careful thought should be given to mooring, towing and hauling arrangements, so that the leads used are those most suited and will not create sharp angles;
  • Ropes and wires should not be fed through the same leads or bollards.
  • Fairleads which have previously been used for wires should be checked to ensure that they have no sharp metallic areas on tension surfaces prior to being used for ropes.

What safety precautions should be taken  when mooring equipment is under load?

  • Personnel essential to the operation should as far as reasonably practicable be able to stand in a protected position;
  • Other persons who have no involvement with mooring, towing or hauling operations, should  be kept well clear of the area;
  • Immediate action should be taken to reduce the load if signs of excessive strain appear in any part of the system.

What should be considered by the person in charge of mooring operations?

  • Wherever practical the person in charge should avoid getting involved with the physical operations, so that they can retain an effective oversight;
  • Good communication must be maintained between all members of the mooring team.

Note- Operation of winches should be undertaken by competent personnel to ensure that excessive loads do not arise on mooring, towing and hauling lines.

How should wire and fibre ropes be joined?

A thimble or other device should be inserted in the eye of the fibre rope. Both wire and fibre rope should have the same direction of lay.


How should ropes and wires be used if stowed on reels?

  • Ropes and wires that are stowed on reels should not be used directly from stowage unless a split drum arrangement is available;
  • They should be run off and flaked out on deck in a clear and safe manner, ensuring sufficient slack to cover all contingencies;
  • if there is doubt of the amount required, then the complete reel should be run off.

What general principles are to be borne in mind when planning a mooring arrangement?

  • Breast-lines provide the bulk of athwartships restraint;
  • Back-springs provide the largest proportion of the longitudinal restraint;
  • Very short lengths of line should be avoided where possible, as such lines will take a greater proportion of the total load, when movement of the ship occurs;
  • Very short lengths may be compensated for by running the line on the bight.

What principles should be followed when heaving on a rope on a drum end?

  • One person should be stationed at the drum end;
  • For heaving moorings and large vessel operations, they should be backed up by a second person backing and coiling down the slack;
  • The line must be tended at all times.
  • In most circumstances up to three turns on the drum end are sufficient and an excessive number of turns should be avoided;
  • A wire on a drum end should never be used as a check wire.

What precautions should be taken when both wires and fibre ropes are used?

  • A wire should never be led across a fibre rope on a bollard;
  • Wires and ropes should be kept in separate fairleads or bollards.

How should stoppers be applied?

  • Natural fibre rope should be stoppered with a natural fibre stopper;
  • Man-made fibre rope should be stoppered with a man-made fibre stopper, but not polyamide;
  • The “West Country” method (double and reverse stoppering) is preferable for fibre ropes;
  • Wire moorings should be stoppered with chain, using two half hitches in the form of a cow hitch, suitably spaced with the tail backed up against the lay of wire, to ensure that the chain neither jams no opens the lay of the wire.

How should weighted heaving lines be used safely?

  • To prevent personal injury to those receiving heaving lines, the “monkey’s fist” at the weighted end should be made with rope only and must not contain added weighting material.
  • Under no circumstances is a heaving line to be weighted by items such as shackles,
    bolts, or  nuts.
  • Safe alternatives include a small high-visibility soft pouch, filled with fast-draining pea shingle or similar, with a weight of not more than 0.5kg.
  • Prior to the operation, the person in charge at the mooring stations should check that lines are not dangerously weighted. If any dangerously weighted lines are found, these should be removed and replaced with appropriate heaving lines.
  • Tug

What precautions should be taken when working with tugs?

  • It is important that those involved consider the safety of persons on both vessels.
  • All equipment used in towing operations, including messengers, should be regularly inspected and replaced if necessary;
  • Good communication between the tug and vessel  are important to ensure that the status of tow lines is understood by both vessels at all times to avoid unexpected loads being applied;
  • Ensure the bitts upon which the towing eye is to be placed are clear of ropes or wires;Note: Similar considerations need to be applied when working with any mooring operation where equipment out of direct control of the vessel is used.

Specific Risks

What are the precautions to be taken with regard  bights of rope and snap-back zones?

  • Personnel should not in any circumstances stand in a bight of rope or wire.
    When mooring, towing and hauling lines are under strain all personnel in the vicinity should remain in positions of safety, avoiding potential ‘snap-back’ zones.
  • All seafarers should be reminded that the whole of the mooring deck may be considered a danger zone and understandable and visible signage should remind all crew working on a mooring deck of this.
  • Viewing the mooring deck arrangement from a high point is recommended, so that
    potential snap-back zones can be identified.
  • Immediate action should be taken to reduce the load should any part of the system appear to be under excessive strain. Care is needed so that ropes or wires will not jam when they come under strain, so that if necessary they can quickly be slackened off.
  • Where a mooring line is led around a pedestal roller fairlead, the ‘snap back’ zone will change and increase in area. Where possible, lines should not be led round pedestals except during the operation of mooring the vessel, thereafter lines should be made up on bitts, clear of pedestals if at all possible.

Further Guidance

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Port Security Plan-A Quick Guide

Navsregss>Ship Certification>International Ship Security Certificate>Port Security Plans

Continuing with the Security theme here is a Handy set of notes on Port Security Plans.

​What requires a port security plan to be developed and maintained?

Part 16 of ISPS code.

Note: The PSP must be based on a port facility security assessment and  be approved by the Government in whose territory the port facility is located.

What should the plan address?

  • Weapons-Measures designed to prevent weapons, dangerous substances and devices intended for use against persons, ships or ports and the carriage of which is not authorised, from being introduced into the port facility or on board a ship;
  • Access -Measures designed to prevent unauthorised access to the port facility, to ships moored at the facility, and to restricted areas of the facility;
  • Threat-Procedures for responding to security threats or breaches of security, including provisions for maintaining critical operations of the port facility or ship/port interface;
  • Instructions-Procedures for responding to any security instructions issued by the  Government in whose territory the port facility is located;
  • Evacuation– Procedures for evacuation in case of security threats or breaches of security
  • Duties-Duties of port facility personnel assigned security responsibilities and of other facility personnel on security aspects;
  • Interface-Procedures for interfacing with ship security activities;
  • Review -Procedures for the periodic review of the plan and updating;
  • Reporting -Procedures for reporting security incidents;
  • Port Security Officer-Identification of the port facility security officer including 24-hour contact details;
  • Information Security– Measures to ensure the security of the information contained in the plan;
  • Cargo Security -Measures designed to ensure effective security of cargo and the cargo handling equipment at the port
  • Audit-Procedures for auditing the port facility security plan;
  • Response-procedures for responding in case the ship security alert system of a ship at the port facility has been activated;
  • Leave-procedures for facilitating shore leave for ship’s personnel or personnel changes, as well as access of visitors to the ship including representatives of seafarers welfare and labour organizations.

What format may the Port Security Plan be in?

  • It may be kept in an electronic format;
  • It may be combined with, or be part of,  other port emergency plan or plans;
  • It may cover more than oneport facility if the operator, location, operation, equipment, and design of these port facilities are similar and the Government approves.

Note: The plan shall be protected from unauthorized access or disclosure.If in an electronic format it shall be protected by procedures to prevent its unauthorized deletion, destruction or amendment.

A Really Handy Guide to Ship Certification-Part 3

Keeping vessels safe

Cover of the Really handy Guide to Ship Certification, part 3.

The third book of the series on vessel certification covers the SOLAS and security certificates, including SAFCON, CSSC, PSSC, ISPS and a diversion into the subject of HSSC.

Click here for the book’s Amazon page>


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SOLAS and Maritime Security

Portsmouth Commercial Harbour panorama

Navsregss>Ship Certification>International Ship Security Certificate>SOLAS and Maritime Security

After its delve into the Polar Code the Navregs blog now changes focus to explore Maritime Security. It follows on from previous posts based on the International Ship Security Certificate; delving deeper and looking wider.


A Handy Reference to SOLAS Special Measures to Enhance Maritime Security

Previous Navregs  Maritime Security Related  Posts

What SOLAS chapter  Chapter makes the ISPS code mandatory?

XI-2 – Special Measures to Enhance Maritime Security

Note: ISPS stands for The International Code for the Security of Ships and Port Facilities.

What does SOLAS Chapter XI-2 Cover?Railings

  • Regulation 1 – Definitions
  • Regulation 2 – Application
  • Regulation 3 – Obligations of Contracting Governments with Respect to Security
  • Regulation 4 – Requirements for Companies and Ships
  • Regulation 5 – Specific Responsibility of Companies
  • Regulation 6 – Ship Security Alert System
  • Regulation 7 – Threats to Ships
  • Regulation 8 – Master’s Discretion for Ship Safety and Security
  • Regulation 9 – Control and Compliance Measures
  • Regulation 10 – Requirements for Port Facilities
  • Regulation 11 – Alternative Security Agreements
  • Regulation 12 – Equivalent Security Arrangements
  • Regulation 13 – Communication of Information

What does SOLAS chapter XI apply to?

  • The following types of ships engaged on international voyages:
  • Passenger ships, including high-speed passenger craft;
  • Cargo ships, including high-speed craft, of 500 gross tonnage and upwards;
  • Mobile offshore drilling units.


  • Port facilities serving such ships engaged on international voyages.

Governments shall decide the extent of application of the chapter to those port facilities Ship and harbour cranes which, although used primarily by ships not engaged on international voyages, are required, occasionally, to serve ships arriving or departing on an international voyage.

The chapter does not apply to warships, naval auxiliaries or other ships owned or operated by a Contracting Government and used only on Government non-commercial service.

A selection of definitions from the Chapter

Ship/port interface

The interactions that occur when a ship is directly and immediately affected by actions involving the movement of persons, goods or the provisions of port services to or from the ship.

Port facility

A location, as determined by the Contracting Government or by the Designated Authority, where the ship/port interface takes place. This includes areas such as anchorages, waiting berths and approaches from seaward, as appropriate.

Ship to ship activity

Any activity not related to a port facility that involves the transfer of goods or persons from one ship to another.

Security incident

Any suspicious act or circumstance threatening the security of a ship, or of a port facility or of any ship/port interface or any ship to ship activity.

Security level

The qualification of the degree of risk that a security incident will be attempted or will occur.

Declaration of security

An agreement reached between a ship and either a port facility or another ship with which it interfaces specifying the security measures each will implement.

Recognized security organization

 An organization with appropriate expertise in security matters and with appropriate knowledge of ship and port operations authorized to carry out an assessment, or a verification, or an approval or a certification activity, required by the chapter or the ISPS Code.

Some online Maritime Security Resources

A Really Handy Guide to Ship Certification-Part 3

Keeping vessels safe

Cover of the Really handy Guide to Ship Certification, part 3.

The third book of the series on vessel certification covers the SOLAS and security certificates, including SAFCON, CSSC, PSSC, ISPS and a diversion into the subject of HSSC.

Click here for the book’s Amazon page>


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The Polar Code and a bit more-an index of posts

Navsregs>The Polar Code

A happy seal

The introduction of the Polar Code has brought in with it new regulations, new certificates, and new documentation. Here is an index of Polar Code Related posts so far  on this blog.

A Really Handy Guide to Ship Certification-Part 4

EnvCoverKeeping the seas clean

The fourth book of the series covers the certificates covering environmental protection, including  IOPP, NLS, IAPPC, IEE, anti-fouling certification and Ballast water convention certification.

Click to view the book’s page on Amazon>

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Is Ice Class the same as Ice Category?

As a follow on from the posts on the Polar Code here is a quick guide to Ice Class and Category.Sea ice

Polar Class and Ice Category Compared

Polar class, sometimes referred to as ‘Ice class’ is a Classification Society designation, whilst Ice Category is a IMO Polar Code designation.

What is Polar Class?

The Unified Requirements for Polar Class ships apply to ships constructed of steel and intended for independent navigation in ice-infested polar waters

Click here for IACS unified requirements>

What are the Polar Class descriptions?

These are based on WMO Sea Ice Nomenclature.

  • 1: Year-round operation in all polar waters
  • 2: Year-round operation in moderate multi-year ice conditions
  • 3:Year-round operation in second-year ice which may include multiyear ice inclusions
  • 4: Year-round operation in thick first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions
  • 5: Year-round operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions
  • 6: Summer/Autumn operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions
  • 7: Summer/Autumn operation in thin first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions

What are the Ice Categories?

  • Category A ship: A ship designed for operation in polar waters in at least medium first-year ice, which may include old ice inclusions
  • Category B ship: A ship not included in category A, designed for operation in polar waters in at least thin first-year ice, which may include old ice inclusions.
  • Category C ship: A ship designed to operate in open water or in ice conditions less severe than those included in categories A and B.

Some Ice Definitions

Ice free watersSea Ice pattern

This means that no ice is present. If ice of any kind is present this term will not be used.

Open water

A large area of freely navigable water in which sea ice is present in concentrations less than 1/10. No ice of land origin is present.

Ice of land origin

means ice formed on land or in an ice shelf, found floating in water.

Sea ice

Any form of ice found at sea which has originated from the freezing of sea water.

First-year ice

Sea ice of not more than one winter growth developing from young ice. It has  a thickness from 0.3 m to 2.0 m.

Medium first-year ice

First-year ice of 70 cm to 120 cm thickness.

Old ice

Sea ice which has survived at least one summer’s melt; typical thickness up to 3 m or more. It is subdivided into residual first-year ice, second-year ice and multi-year ice.

A Really Handy Range of Revision aids for Kindle


The Really Handy Range of books have been written for the Kindle format. They cover vessel certification, seamanship, ISM , IALA and the COLREGS.

Click here to learn more about the books>

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The Safety of Navigation and the Polar Code

Iceberg through a bridge window

A handy summary of the safety of Navigation elements of the polar code.

Another part of the Polar Code looked at in this blog, and another chance to share some ice photos.

Navigation in the polar regions present some challenges, and the Polar code contains some important requirements to meet those challenges.

What part of the Polar Code covers the safety of Navigation?

Chapter 9

What are the requirements for Navigational equipment functionality?

The navigational equipment and systems shall be:

  • Designed
  • Constructed
  • Installed

-to retain their functionality under the expected environmental conditions in the area of operation.

Systems for providing reference headings and position fixing shall be suitable for the intended areas.

What additional navigational equipment is required under the Polar Code?

Detecting the ice

  • Ships shall have means of receiving and displaying current information on ice

    Sea ice forming at South Georgia

    conditions in the area of operation

  • Ships shall have the ability to visually detect ice when operating in darkness
  • Two remotely rotatable, narrow-beam search lights controllable from the bridge to provide lighting over an arc of 360 degrees, or other means to visually detect ice. This is not required by vessels  solely operating in areas with 24 hours daylight


  • Either two independent echo-sounding devices or one echo-sounding device with two separate independent transducers. This applies to ships constructed on or after 1 January 2017 that are  ice strengthened in accordance with chapter 3 of the code
  • Two non-magnetic means to determine and display their heading.Both means shall be independent and shall be connected to the ship’s main and emergency source of power
  • Ships proceeding to latitudes over 80 degrees shall be fitted with at least one GNSS compass or equivalent, which shall be connected to the ship’s main and emergency source of power
  • For ships operating in areas, and during periods, where ice accretion is likely to occur, means to prevent the accumulation of ice on antennas required for navigation and communication
  • For ice strengthened ships  where equipment required by SOLAS chapter V or the Polar Code  have sensors that project below the hull, such sensors shall be protected against ice.

Rock formation at Hystviken

Working with icebreakers

  • Ships involved in operations with an icebreaker escort shall be equipped with a manually initiated flashing red light visible from astern to indicate when the ship is stopped.

This light shall have a range of visibility of at least two nautical miles, and the horizontal and vertical arcs of visibility shall conform to the stern light specifications in the COLREGS.

What are the Polar Code requirements regarding bridge design?

Ships shall comply with SOLAS regulation V/, irrespective of the date of construction and the size and, depending on the bridge configuration, a clear view astern.

In category A and B ships constructed on or after 1 January 2017, the bridge wings shall be enclosed or designed to protect navigational equipment and operating personnel.

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What is the Polar Water Operational Manual?

South Georgia icebergs

And here we have another Polar Code related post, this time is a guide to the extra document that will have to be carried by ships operating in Polar Waters.

A key part of the Polar Code is the requirement to carry a Polar Water Operations Manual. This post gives a quick summary of the contents of that manual.

To comply with the Polar Code this manual must be carried onboard.

Click here for IMO MEPC 264 58>

What is the goal of the Polar Water Operational Manual?

To provide the owner, operator, master and crew with sufficient information regarding the ship’s operational capabilities and limitations in order to support their decision-making process when in Polar waters.

What are the Functional requirements of the PWOM?

The Manual should include or refer to:

  • Information on the ship-specific capabilities and limitations in relation to the assessment by the Polar Code
  •  Specific procedures to be followed in normal operations and in order to avoid encountering conditions that exceed the ship’s capabilities
  • Specific procedures to be followed in the event
    of incidents in polar waters
  • Specific procedures to be followed in the event that conditions are encountered which exceed the ship’s specific capabilities and limitations
  • Procedures to be followed when using icebreaker assistance, as applicable.

Note: The Manual also shall contain, where applicable, the methodology used to determine capabilities and limitations in ice.

What risk-based procedures should be included in the PWOM?Sun and Polar Seas

  • Voyage planning to avoid ice and/or temperatures that exceed the ship’s
    design capabilities or limitations
  • Arrangements for receiving forecasts of the environmental conditions;
  • Means of addressing any limitations of the hydrographic, meteorological
    and navigational information available
  • Operation of equipment required under other chapters of this Code
    Implementation of special measures to maintain equipment and system
    functionality under low temperatures, topside icing and the presence of sea
    ice, as applicable.
  • Contacting emergency response providers for salvage, search and rescue (SAR), spill response, etc., as applicable
  • In the case of ships ice strengthened in accordance with chapter 3,  procedures for maintaining life support and ship integrity in the event of prolonged entrapment by ice
  • Measures to be taken in the event of encountering ice and/or temperatures which exceed the ship’s design capabilities or limitations
  • Procedures for monitoring and maintaining safety during operations in ice, as applicable, including any requirements for escort operations or icebreaker assistance. Different operational limitations may apply depending on whether the ship is operating independently or with icebreaker escort. Where appropriate, the PWOM should specify both options.

What are the contents of the Polar Water Operational Manual (PWOM)?

Appendix 2 of the code contains a model table of a polar operations manual, here is a list Ice and mountain through a ship's windowof  PWOM contents derived from that Appendix.

Safety Measures

Division 1 – Operational capabilities and limitations

Chapter 1 Operation in ice
  • Operator guidance for safe operation
  • Icebreaking capabilities
  • Manoeuvring in ice
  • Special features Guidance
Chapter 2 Operation in low air temperatures
  • System design
Chapter 3 Communication and navigation capabilities in high latitudes
Chapter 4 Voyage duration

Division 2 – Ship operations

Chapter 1 Strategic planning
  • Avoidance of hazardous ice
  • Avoidance of hazardous temperatures
  • Voyage duration and endurance
  • Human resources management
Chapter 2 Arrangements for receiving forecasts of environmental conditionsElephant Seal and anchor
  • Ice information
  • Meteorological information
Chapter 3 Verification of hydrographic, meteorological and navigational information

Chapter 4 Operation of Special Equipment

  • Navigation systems
  • Communications systems
Chapter 5 Procedures to maintain equipment and system functionality
  • Icing prevention and de-icing
  • Operation of seawater systems
  • Procedures for low temperature operations

Division 3 – Risk management

Chapter 1 Risk mitigation in limiting environmental condition
  • Measures to be considered in adverse ice conditions
  • Measures to be considered in adverse temperature conditions
Chapter 2 Emergency response
  • Damage control
  • Firefighting
  • Escape and evacuation
Chapter 3 Coordination with emergency response services
  • Ship emergency response
  •  Salvage
Chapter 4 Procedures for maintaining life support and ship integrity in the event of
prolonged entrapment by ice.
  • System configuration
  • System operation

Division 4 – Joint operations

Chapter 1 Escorted operations
Chapter 2 Convoy operations

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