Category Archives: Ballast Water Convention

The Maritime Conventions

dscf3338SOLAS, MARPOL and beyond

A Handy Revision Guide to the Conventions

Throughout this series of posts on Ship Certification various International Conventions have often been referred to. Therefore this is good time to create a summary of the the Key conventions.  To keep things simple, I have ordered and categorised them in the same manner as the certification posts.

The IMO conventions

The majority of the conventions, but not all, are produced by the IMO.

Identifying the ship

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United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)     

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982

“The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea lays down a comprehensive regime of law and order in the world’s oceans and seas establishing rules governing all uses of the oceans and their resources. It enshrines the notion that all problems of ocean space are closely interrelated and need to be addressed as a whole.”

The issues covered by the Convention include:

  • Territorial seas
  • Innocent passage
  • Transit passage through straits
  • Exclusive economic zones  (EEZ)
  • Continental shelf exploitation
  • Freedoms of the high sea
  • Marine pollution responsibilities
  • Disputes

The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to adjudicate disputes arising out of the interpretation and application of the Convention.

Defining the shipwpid-wp-1437630402998.jpeg

International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969 (Tonnage Convention)

This Convention introduced an universal tonnage measurement system. The Convention provides for gross and net tonnages, both of which are calculated independently.

Gross tonnage and net tonnage

The Convention meant a transition from the traditionally used terms gross register tons (grt) and net register tons (nrt) to gross tonnage(GT) and net tonnage (NT).

Some definitions from the Convention

“(4) “gross tonnage” means the measure of the overall size of a ship determined in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention;

(5) “net tonnage” means the measure of the useful capacity of a ship determined in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention;”

International Convention on Load Lines, 1966, as Loadlinesmodified by the 1988 Protocol relating thereto, as amended (Load Lines Convention)

“It has long been recognized that limitations on the draught to which a ship may be loaded make a significant contribution to her safety. These limits are given in the form of freeboards, which constitute, besides external weathertight and watertight integrity, the main objective of the Convention.” IMO website

Contents of the convention

Annex I

  • Chapter I – General
  • Chapter II – Conditions of assignment of freeboard
  • Chapter III – Freeboards
  • Chapter IV – Special requirements for ships assigned timber freeboards

Annex II covers Zones, areas and seasonal periods

Annex III contains certificates, including the International Load Line Certificate

Managing the vessel

The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certificationwpid-157765645208.jpg
and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW), 1978

International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers entered into force in 1984. The main purpose of the Convention is to promote safety of life and property at sea and the protection of the marine environment by establishing in common agreement international standards of training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers.

The Manila amendments to the STCW Convention and Code were adopted on 25 June 2010, marking a major revision of the STCW Convention and Code.

The STCW regulations are supported by sections by the STCW Code. The Convention contains basic requirements which are then enlarged upon and explained in the Code.

Part A of the Code is mandatory. The minimum standards of competence required for seagoing personnel are given in detail in a series of tables.

Part B of the Code contains recommended guidance which is intended to help implement the Convention.

ILO Maritime Labour Convention, (MLC 2006) – As amended by the 2014DSCF3260 Amendment (MLC)

The Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (“MLC, 2006”) establishes minimum working and living standards for all seafarers working on ships flying the flags of ratifying countries. It is widely known as the “seafarers’ bill of rights,”

The convention is an international labour Convention adopted by the International Labour Organization (ILO).

Keeping the ship safe

The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974img_20151119_111728.jpg

“The SOLAS Convention in its successive forms is generally regarded as the most important of all international treaties concerning the safety of merchant ships. The first version was adopted in 1914, in response to the Titanic disaster, the second in 1929, the third in 1948, and the fourth in 1960. The 1974 version includes the tacit acceptance procedure – which provides that an amendment shall enter into force on a specified date unless, before that date, objections to the amendment are received from an agreed number of Parties.” IMO Website

The 1974 Convention has been updated and amended on numerous occasions. The Convention in force today is sometimes referred to as SOLAS, 1974, as amended.

Keeping the seas clean

The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from wpid-10152154002370209.jpgShips, 1973 (MARPOL)

MARPOL is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes.

The MARPOL Convention was adopted on 2 November 1973 at IMO.  MARPOL has been updated by amendments over the years.

The convention currently includes six technical Annexes.

International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004 (BWM Convention)aquariamcircleedited

The Convention aims to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through the control and management of ships’ ballast water and sediments. It enters into force on 8 September 2017.

Under the Convention, all ships in international traffic are required to manage their ballast water and sediments to a certain standard, according to a ship-specific ballast water management plan. All ships will also have to carry a ballast water record book and an international ballast water management certificate.

International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships, 2001 (AFS Convention)

The Convention prohibits the use of harmful organotins in anti-fouling paints used on ships and establishes a mechanism to prevent the potential future use of other harmful substances in anti-fouling systems.

Annex I of the Convention states that all ships shall not apply or re-apply organotins compounds which act as biocides in anti-fouling systems.

International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, 2001 (Bunkers Convention)

The Convention was adopted to ensure that adequate, prompt, and effective compensation is available to persons who suffer damage caused by spills of oil, when carried as fuel in ships’ bunkers

International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1992 (CLC Convention)

The Convention covers those who suffer oil pollution damage resulting from maritime casualties involving oil-carrying ships. The Convention places the liability for such damage on the owner of the ship from which the polluting oil escaped or was discharged.

The Convention applies to seagoing vessels carrying oil in bulk as cargo, but only ships carrying more than 2,000 tons of oil are required to maintain insurance in respect of oil pollution damage.

Other Conventions

Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREGs)

The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships, 2009caribillemillnarrow

The Hong Kong Convention is aimed at ensuring that ships, when being recycled after reaching the end of their operational lives, do not pose any unnecessary risk to human health and safety or to the environment.

Its regulations cover:

  • The design, construction, operation and preparation of ships so as to facilitate safe and environmentally sound recycling
  • The operation of ship recycling facilities in a safe and environmentally sound manner
  • The establishment of an appropriate enforcement mechanism for ship recycling, incorporating certification and reporting requirements

Ships to be sent for recycling will be required to carry an inventory of hazardous materials, which will be specific to each ship.

International Convention on Salvage

The Convention replaced the 1910 convention on the law of salvage which incorporated the “‘no cure, no pay” principle. The 1989 Convention added a provision for an enhanced salvage award taking into account the skill and efforts of the salvors in preventing or minimizing damage to the environment.

International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR)

The 1979 Convention was aimed at developing an international SAR plan, so that, no matter where an accident occurs, the rescue of persons in distress at sea will be co-ordinated by a SAR organization and, when necessary, by co-operation between neighbouring SAR organizations.

As this series on Certification  draws to a close this post will no doubt be ‘tweaked’ and expanded, and may form the basis of its own page on spawn more pots….maybe. Meanwhile the next certificate is awaiting exploring.


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 A Really Handy Guide to Ship Certification (part 1) has just been added to the range. More to follow shortly in the series.

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The Ballast Water Management Convention is almost here

aquariamcircleeditedBWC- a quick guide to implemtation

Controlling the spread of invasive species


Implementation Date 8 September 2017


Another quick pause from the stream of certification posts to have a peer into some of the key facts about implementing the ballast water convention.

When must a ship comply with the standards defined in the Ballast water Convention?

Resolution A.1088(28) Application of the International Convention for the control and management of ship’s ballast water and sediments 2004

“4 notwithstanding paragraph 2.2, where the Convention enters into force after the year 2016, a ship subject to regulations B-3.1.2 or B-3.4 will not be required to comply with regulation D-2 until its first renewal survey following the date of entry into force of the Convention; .

5 a ship referred to in paragraphs 2.1 to 2.4 will be required to comply with either regulation D-1 or regulation D-2 until such time as regulation D-2 is enforced;

.6 the renewal survey referred to in paragraphs 2.1 to 2.4 is the renewal survey associated with the International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate under MARPOL Annex I;

In simple terms as from 8 September 2017 a ship must comply with D-1 (ballast water exchange) or D-2 ( Ballast water standards), and after that date, on renewal of its IOPP certificate, it must comply with D-2.

bwm

 

What is required to comply with the Ballast Water Management Convention?

 

Regulation B-1 Ballast Water Management Plan

Each ship shall have on board and implement an approved Ballast Water Management plan.

Regulation B-2 Ballast Water Record Book

Each ship shall have on board a Ballast Water record book that may be an electronic record system, or that may be integrated into another record book or system.

“Each operation concerning Ballast Water shall be fully recorded without delay in the Ballast Water record book. Each entry shall be signed by the officer in charge of the operation concerned and each completed page shall be signed by the master”

Regulation B-3 Ballast Water Management for Ships

Ships are to manage ballast in accordance with either D-1 or D-2.

Regulation B-5 Sediment Management for Ships

All ships shall remove and dispose of Sediments from spaces designated to carry Ballast Water in accordance with the provisions of the ship‘s Ballast Water Management plan

Regulation B-6 Duties of Officers and Crew

Officers and crew shall be familiar with their duties in the implementation of Ballast Water Management and be familiar with the ship‘s Ballast Water Management plan.

More information about the Ballast Water Management Convention

Useful BWC links

Information about BWC certification

The Ballast Water Management Convention on Navsregs store

 

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International Ballast Water Management Certificate- A handy guide

Controlling the spread of invasive species

Enters into force on 8 September 2017

aquariamcircleedited

“The spread of invasive species is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the ecological and the economic well being of the planet.” IMO website

Bringing up the rear of this section on ship certification posts is the newest of the the documents. It has been a long time in development and ratification, but at last is now entering force in September of 2017.

Why is an International Ballast Water Management Certificate required?

It will be required under the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships‘ Ballast Water and Sediments.

Two suggested links:

Two definitions from the Convention:

Ballast Water “ means water with its suspended matter taken on board a ship to control trim, list, draught, stability or stresses of the ship.

Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens “ means aquatic organisms or pathogens which,  if introduced into the sea including estuaries, or into fresh water courses, may create hazards to the environment, human health, property or resources, impair biological diversity or interfere with other legitimate uses of such areas.

Which ships require the certificate

Ships of 400 gross tonnage and above.

What information is contained on an International Ballast Water Management Certificate?

  • Particulars of ship
    • Name of ship
    • Distinctive number or letters
    • Port of registry
    • Gross Tonnage
    • IMO number
    • Date of Construction
  • Ballast information
    • Ballast Water Capacity (in cubic metres)
    • Details of Ballast Water Management Method(s) Used
    • Method of Ballast Water Management used
    • Date installed (if applicable)
    • Name of manufacturer (if applicable)
    • The principal Ballast Water Management method(s) employed on this ship is/are:
      • In accordance with regulation D-1
      • In accordance with regulation D-2
      • The ship is subject to regulation D-4
  • Validity
  • Certificate is validity
  • Survey dates
  • Issued

What Surveys are required?

Reference Regulation E-1 Surveys

Ships of 400 gross tonnage and above to which this Convention applies, excluding floating platforms, FSUs and FPSOs:

An initial survey before the ship is put in service or before the Certificate is issued for the first time.

An intermediate survey within three months before or after the second Anniversary date or within three months before or after the third Anniversary date of the Certificate

An annual survey within three months before or after each Anniversary date

An additional survey either general or partial,after a change, replacement, or significant repair of the structure, equipment, systems, fittings, arrangements and material necessary to achieve full compliance with this Convention

What inspections may be carried out?

  • In a port or offshore terminal of another inspections to determine whether the ship is in compliance with this Convention. This inspection will normally be limited to:
  • Verifying that there is onboard a valid Certificate
  • Inspection of the Ballast Water record book
  • A sampling of the ship‘s Ballast Water. However, the time required to analyse the samples shall not be used as a basis for unduly delaying the operation, movement or departure of the ship.

What ballast water standards must be met?

After 8th September ships must comply with one of the following. D1 can only be used up to the renewal of the IOPP certificate. See IMO  Resolution  A1.088(28) for more information.

Regulation D-1 Ballast Water Exchange Standard
This requires Ballast Water exchange  with an efficiency of at least 95 percent volumetric exchange of Ballast Water. For ships exchanging Ballast Water by the pumping-through method, pumping through three times the volume of each Ballast Water tank shall be considered to meet the standard

Regulation D-2 Ballast Water Performance Standard

This sets standards according to the number of  viable organisms per cubic metre.  The standard also states what microbes must be included in the test as indicators.

 

Regulation D-4 fives a five year exemption to Prototype Ballast Water Treatment Technologies.

What documents must be carried with the certificate?

 

Each ship shall have on board and implement a Ballast Water Management plan. Such a plan shall be approved by the Administration

Each ship shall have on board a Ballast Water record book that may be an electronic record system, or that may be integrated into another record book or system.

 

Some useful Ballast water links


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BWC links

International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments- Some handy links

As a post in advance of some notes on the Ballast Water Convention, here is some suggested links to explore. 

​IMO Ballast water management

IMO Ballast water convention

UK guidance for control and management of ballast water

UK MGN 363 The control and management of ships ballast water

UK MGN 81 Ship ballast water minimize transfer of harmful organisms

Globallast website

Lloyds Register Ballast water management webpage

More ballast water revision notes will appear  here after some more MARPOL related posts.