Category Archives: Codes

The Safety of Navigation and the Polar Code

Iceberg through a bridge window

A handy summary of the safety of Navigation elements of the polar code.

Another part of the Polar Code looked at in this blog, and another chance to share some ice photos.

Navigation in the polar regions present some challenges, and the Polar code contains some important requirements to meet those challenges.

What part of the Polar Code covers the safety of Navigation?

Chapter 9

What are the requirements for Navigational equipment functionality?

The navigational equipment and systems shall be:

  • Designed
  • Constructed
  • Installed

-to retain their functionality under the expected environmental conditions in the area of operation.

Systems for providing reference headings and position fixing shall be suitable for the intended areas.

 

What additional navigational equipment is required under the Polar Code?

Detecting the ice

  • Ships shall have means of receiving and displaying current information on ice

    Sea ice forming at South Georgia

    conditions in the area of operation

  • Ships shall have the ability to visually detect ice when operating in darkness
  • Two remotely rotatable, narrow-beam search lights controllable from the bridge to provide lighting over an arc of 360 degrees, or other means to visually detect ice. This is not required by vessels  solely operating in areas with 24 hours daylight

Navigating

  • Either two independent echo-sounding devices or one echo-sounding device with two separate independent transducers. This applies to ships constructed on or after 1 January 2017 that are  ice strengthened in accordance with chapter 3 of the code
  • Two non-magnetic means to determine and display their heading. Both means shall be independent and shall be connected to the ship’s main and emergency source of power
  • Ships proceeding to latitudes over 80 degrees shall be fitted with at least one GNSS compass or equivalent, which shall be connected to the ship’s main and emergency source of power
  • For ships operating in areas, and during periods, where ice accretion is likely to occur, means to prevent the accumulation of ice on antennas required for navigation and communication
  • For ice strengthened ships  where equipment required by SOLAS chapter V or the Polar Code  have sensors that project below the hull, such sensors shall be protected against ice.

Rock formation at Hystviken

Working with icebreakers

  • Ships involved in operations with an icebreaker escort shall be equipped with a manually initiated flashing red light visible from astern to indicate when the ship is stopped.

This light shall have a range of visibility of at least two nautical miles, and the horizontal and vertical arcs of visibility shall conform to the stern light specifications in the COLREGS.

What are the Polar Code requirements regarding bridge design?

Ships shall comply with SOLAS regulation V/22.1.9.4, irrespective of the date of construction and the size and, depending on the bridge configuration, a clear view astern.

In category A and B ships constructed on or after 1 January 2017, the bridge wings shall be enclosed or designed to protect navigational equipment and operating personnel.


dscf3338The Really Handy Revisions Aids for Kindle

Navsbooks publishes a range of revision aids for mariners studying for professional examinations. Each one has been written for the Kindle format, each one is at a handy price. They cover Colregs, Certification, Seamanship, ISM, and IALA.

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What is the Polar Code?

South Georgia skyline

I have been asked quite a few questions on the Polar Code recently, and the Navigation Lights series of posts have been put to one side for a while whilst I put together some facts about the new code.

The International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters, (The Polar Code), has been introduced by the IMO to safeguard both life and the environment. It therefore draws on both SOLAS and MARPOL for its authority. This post is a quick introduction to the code.

What is the purpose of the Polar Code?

The International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters has been developed to Anchor in the snowsupplement the SOLAS and MARPOL  Conventions in order to increase the safety of ships’ operation and mitigate the impact on the people and environment in the remote, vulnerable and potentially harsh polar waters.

How was the Polar Code introduced?

The polar code was introduced by the IMO resolution  MEPC.264(68)

It is mandated by Chapter XIV – of SOLAS ‘Safety Measures for Ships Operating in Polar Waters’ and by additional chapters to the Annexes of MARPOL

Which ships have to comply with the Polar Code?

To all ships operating in polar waters

However, 

Ships constructed before 1 January 2017 shall meet the relevant requirements of the Polar Code by the first intermediate or renewal survey, whichever occurs first, after the 1st of  January 2018.

It does not apply Ships owned or operated by a Contracting Government and used, for the time being, only in Government non-commercial service. However, ships owned or operated by a Contracting Government and used, for the time being, only in Government non-commercial service are encouraged to act in a manner consistent, so far as reasonable and practicable, with the code.

What are Polar Waters?

  • Antarctic: Further south than 60 South
  • Arctic:  Within a boundary defined in the code, this has a lowest latitude of 58 North off Greenland

Where can Information on the Polar Code be found?

Frozen sea and mountainsWhat does the Polar Code Cover?

This is best summarized by the chapter headings of its two sections.

Safety Measures

  • Chapter 1 -General
  • Chapter 2 – Polar Water Operation Manual (PWOM)
  • Chapter 3-Ship Structure
  • Chapter 4- Subdivision and Stability
  • Chapter 5- Watertight and Weathertight Integrity
  • Chapter 6-Machinery Installations
  • Chapter 7-Fire safety/Protection
  • Chapter 8-Life Saving Appliances and Arrangements
  • Chapter 9- Safety of Navigation
  • Chapter 10-Communication
  • Chapter 11- Voyage Planning
  • Chapter 12- Manning and Training

Pollution Prevention Measures

  • Chapter 1-Prevention of Pollution by Oil
  • Chapter 2-Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk
  • Chapter 3-Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form
  • Chapter 4- Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships
  • Chapter 5-Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships

PolarCodeClick to search for the Polar Code on Amazon>

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Maritime Conventions and Codes on Amazon

wp-1481562626266.jpgThroughout the recent posts on this blog have been references to various International Maritime Conventions and Codes. Now that all the key certificates have been covered, it is probably a good time to provide a quick reference to where to purchase the source publications.

Where to find the publications on Amazon

When I started building this post my intention was to give links to each book. Unfortunately, I was soon thwarted by the high range in prices being offered on line. In order to avoid providing links towards overpriced I have instead given some search links that will allow a quick check of what is currently being offered on-line.

Before buying through Amazon then it is recommended to check the suppliers and prices IMOfrom the IMO, at their publication page.

The International Conventions

solas

Codes

Other Codes and guidance

 

 

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The High Speed Craft Code

DSC00654To complete the exploration of the High Speed Craft Safety Certification, here is a quick post on the high speed craft code.

Two High Speed Craft Codes

High speed craft have to comply with one of two codes, with the date of build determining which one.

  • The International Code of safety for High speed Craft 1994
  • The International Code of safety for High speed Craft 2000

The 2000 Code applies to high speed craft of which the keels were laid or which are at a similar stage of construction on or after 1 July 2002.

What is the link between SOLAS and the High Speed Craft Code?

Chapter X of SOLAS is dedicated to high speed craft. A small chapter of only three regulations, the last of which contains the following:

“.1 a high-speed craft constructed on or after 1 January 1996 but before 1 July 2002 which complies with the requirements of the High-Speed Craft Code, 1994 in its entirety and which has been surveyed and certified as provided in that Code shall be deemed to have complied with the requirements of chapters I to IV and regulations V/18, 19 and 20. For the purpose of this regulation, the requirements of that Code shall be treated as mandatory;

.2 a high-speed craft constructed on or after 1 July 2002 which complies with the requirements of the High-Speed Craft Code, 2000 in its entirety and which has been surveyed and certified as provided in that Code shall be deemed to have complied with the requirements of chapters I to IV and regulations V/18, 19 and 20.”

In simple terms this states that an High speed craft that complies with the relevant code does not require to comply with the SOLAS chapters that apply to cargo and passanger ships.

What is the concept of the code?

The High-Speed Craft Code  recognizes that safety levels can behsccode
significantly enhanced by the infrastructure associated with regular service on a particular route, whilst the conventional ship safety philosophy relies on the ship being self-sustaining with all necessary emergency equipment being carried on board. The Code is based on the management and reduction of risk as well as the traditional philosophy of passive protection in the event of an accident.

What does the code cover?

This summary of the chapter headings from the code will give an overview of its scope:

  • Buoyancy, stability and Subdivision
  • Structures
  • Accommodation and escape measures
  • Directional control systems
  • Anchoring, towing and berthing
  • Fire safety
  • Life saving appliances and arrangements
  • Machinery
  • Auxiliary systems
  • Remote control, alarm and safety systems
  • Electrical installations
  • Ship Navigational systems and equipment and voyage data recorders
  • Radio communications
  • Operating Compartment layout
  • Stabilization systems
  • Handling, controllability and performance
  • Operational requirements
  • Inspection and maintenance requirements

For more information


CertId1Cover

First in the series of Ship Certification revision guides

A Really Handy Guide to Ship Certification, Part 1, is available for Kindle readers.

Click here for the Amazon page>

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The ISPS Code- A Handy Summary

DSC00382Cropped

Following on from the last post on the International Ship Security Certificate, this post has a quick look at its associated code. 

The International Code for the Security of Ships and Port Facilities

Following terrorists attacks of  11th September 2001 the IMO agreed to the development of new measures relating to the security of ships and of port facilities; out of this agreement came the ISPS code

What makes the ISPS code mandatory?

SOLAS Chapter XI-2 , Special measures to Enhance Maritime Security

Regulation 4 Requirements for Companies and Ships

“2 Ships shall comply with the relevant requirements of this chapter and of part A of the ISPS Code, taking into account the guidance given in part B of the ISPS Code, and such compliance shall be verified and certified as provided for in part A of the ISPS Code…..”

This Code applies to the following ships on international voyages:

  • Passenger ships, including high-speed passenger craft;
  • Cargo ships, including high-speed craft, of 500 gross tonnage and upwards
  • Mobile offshore drilling units
  • Port facilities serving such ships engaged on international voyages

What does SOLAS Say about ship security and the Master’s discretion?

Regulation 8

“1 The master shall not be constrained by the Company, the charterer or any other person from taking or executing any decision which, in the professional judgement of the master, is necessary to maintain the safety and security of the ship. This includes denial of access to persons (except those identified as duly authorized by a Contracting Government) or their effects and refusal to load cargo, including containers or other closed cargo transport units.”

Contents of the ISPS code

This list of sections within the code give in an indication of the range of its requirements. The contents of sections 7, 8, 9,10, 12 and 14 are the most applicable to ships and require a Ship Security Assessment, Ship Security Plan and Ship Security officer to be in place.

  • 1 General
  • 2 Definitions
  • 3 Application
  • 4  Responsibilities of Contracting Governments
  • 5 Deceleration of Security
  • 6 Obligations of the Company
  • 7 Ship Security
  • 8 Ship Security Assessment
  • 9 Ship Security Plan
  • 10 Records
  • 11 Company Security Officer
  • 12 Ship Security Officer
  • 13 Training, Drills and exercises on Ship Security
  • 14 Port Facility Security
  • 15 Port Facility Security assessment
  • 16 Port Facility Security Plan
  • 17 Port Facility Security officer
  • 18  Training, Drills and exercises on Port Facility Security

What is covered by the ship Security Assessment (SSA) ?

  • Physical security
  • Structural integrity
  • Personnel protection systems
  • Procedural policies
  • Radio and telecommunication systems, including computer systems and networks
  • Other areas that may, if damaged or used for illicit observation, pose a risk to
    persons, property, or operations on board the ship or within a port facility

What is the Ship Security Plan (SSP)?

Ship security plan means a plan developed to ensure the application of measures on board the ship designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units, ship’s stores or the ship from the risks of a security incident.” ISPS Code definitions

Contents of the plan

  • The organizational structure of security for the ship
  • The ship’s relationships with the Company, port facilities, other ships and relevant authorities with security responsibility
  • The communication systems to allow effective continuous communication
    within the ship and between the ship and others, including port facilities
  • The basic security measures for security level 1 that will always be in place
  • The additional security measures that will allow the ship to progress without
    delay to security level 2 and, when necessary, to security level 3
  • Procedures for regular review, or audit, of the SSP and for its amendment in response to experience or changing circumstances
  • The reporting procedures to the appropriate Contracting Governments contact points

What are the Security Levels?

These are set by Governments based on the security threat. Each threat level will have a corresponding series of security measures within the Ship and Port Security plans.

  • Security level 1 means the level for which minimum appropriate protective
    security measures shall be maintained at all times.
  • Security level 2 means the level for which appropriate additional protective
    security measures shall be maintained for a period of time as a result of
    heightened risk of a security incident.
  • Security level 3 means the level for which further specific protective security
    measures shall be maintained for a limited period of time when a security incident
    is probable or imminent, although it may not be possible to identify the specific
    target.

What nominated personal are required by ISPS?

The Company Security Officer (CSO) is responsible for ensuring that a Ship Security
Assessment (SSA) is carried out for each of the ships in the Company’s fleet.

Ship Security Officer (SSO) means the person on board the ship, accountable to the
master, designated by the Company as responsible for the security of the ship.

Port Facility Security Officer (PFSO)means the person designated as responsible for the development, implementation, revision and maintenance of the port facility
security plan and for liaison with the ship security officers and company security
officers.


 

Some Related Revision Guides

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The Grain Code- What does it contain?

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The International Code for the safe carriage of grain in bulk

The last post on the  Document of Authourisation to Carry Grain  referred to the grain code.  Before the blog moves onto the next piece of cargo related certification it will have a very quick look at that code. Only a quick look though; just an overview of the contents.

Click to find the code on Amazon

“1.1. This Code applies to ships regardless of size, including those of less than 500 tons gross tonnage, engaged in the carriage of grain in bulk, to which part C of chapter VI of the 1974 SOLAS Convention, as amended, applies.” The Grain Code

  • Part A – Specific requirements
    • 1 Application
    • 2 Definitions
    • 3 Document of authorization
    • 4 Equivalents
    • 5 Exemptions for certain voyages
    • 6 Information regarding ship’s stability and grain loading
    • 7 Stability requirements
    • 8 Stability requirements for existing ship
    • 9 Optional stability requirements for ships without documents of
      authorization carrying partial cargoes of bulk grain
    • 10 Stowage of bulk grain
    • 11 Strength of grain fittings
    • 12 Divisions loaded on both sides
    • 13 Divisions loaded on one side only
    • 14 Saucers
    • 15 Bundling of bulk grain
    • 16 Overstowing arrangements
    • 17 Strapping or lashing
    • 18 Securing with wire mesh
  • Part B – Calculation of assumed heeling moments and
    general assumptions
  • 1 General assumptions
  • 2 Assumed volumetric heeling moment of a filled compartment,
    trimmed
  • 3 Assumed volumetric heeling moment of a filled compartment,
    untrimmed
  • 4 Assumed volumetric heeling moments in trunks
  • 5 Assumed volumetric heeling moment of a partly filled
    compartment
  • 6 Other assumptions
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The three IMO gas carrier codes- A handy summary

igc-code-wideGas tankers are covered by a confusing array of codes, there before this series looks at the  Certificate of fitness for carriage of liquified gases in bulk, it will give a quick summary of those codes.

The three Gas carrier codes

The year of build of a vessel will determine which code applies.

  • ICG code: The International Code of the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk GC Code- 1986
  • GC Code: Code for the Construction Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk-1983
  • EGC Code: Code for Existing Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk-1976

For the IMO web page on the IGC code click here>


The ICG code

The International Code of the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (1986)

This was adopted by resolution MSC.5(48), has been mandatory under SOLAS chapigc-codeter VII since 1 July 1986. The IGC Code applies to ships regardless of their size,  engaged in carriage of liquefied gases having a vapour pressure exceeding 2.8 bar absolute at a temperature of 37.8°C, and certain other substances listed in chapter 19 of the Code.

The aim of the Code is to provide an international standard for the safe carriage by sea in bulk of liquefied gases  by prescribing the design and construction standards of ships involved in such carriage and the equipment they should carry.


The GC Code

Code for the Construction Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (GC Code) (1983)

gascode1983

This Code was developed to provide an international standard for the safe carriage by sea in bulk of liquefied gases and certain other substances. The Code generally applies to ships built on or after 31 December 1976 but prior to 1 July 1986. 


EGC Code

Code for Existing Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (1976)

The purpose ogascode1976f this Code is to provide international standards for the safe carriage of liquefied gases in bulk by ships which are currently in service, or which otherwise fall outside the scope of the more extensive standards contained in resolution A.328(IX). The Code generally applies to ships delivered before 31 December 1976.


Additional sources of information


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