Category Archives: SOLAS V

The requirement to keep nautical charts and publications up to date

Adequate and up to date, the two important features that SOLAS V demands of charts and publications. This post looks at that requirement in more detail, and also introduces a new book in the ‘Really Handy Guide’ range of Kindle Revision aids.

Bridge wings and MoonSOLAS V Regulation 27 – Nautical Charts and Nautical Publications

What are the requirements for the carriage of nautical charts and publications according to SOLAS V?

Nautical charts and nautical publications necessary for the intended voyage, shall be:

  • Adequate
  • Up to date

Note: Flag states can have some flexibility in defining which ships have to comply with this Regulation. In the case of UK flagged ships it applies to all ships except for pleasure vessels of less than 150 gt.

What type of publications does this refer to?

Sailing directions, lists of lights, notices to mariners, tide tables and all other nautical publications.

A definition from the regulations

 “Nautical chart” or “nautical publication” is a special-purpose map or book, or a specially compiled database from which such a map or book is derived, that is issued officially by or on the authority of a Government, authorized Hydrographic Office or other relevant government institution and is designed to meet the requirements of marine navigation.” Regulation 2

What SOLAS Regulation states the carriage requirements for charts and nautical publications?

SOLAS V Regulation 19.

Where can I find some useful guidance on the carriage and use of Nautical Charts and Publications?

In Annex 3 to the UK guidance to SOLAS V.

Guidance on the use of Electronic Charts is contained in ANNEX 14.
Bridge window

UK guidance on the updating of electronic charts

Within the  UK MCA SOLAS V guidance is a section on the updating of electronic charts, here is a summary of the key points.

  • Updates available in port should be applied before passage planning commences and before leaving port.
  •  If updates are received at sea they should be applied as soon as possible.
  • Any changes relevant to the execution of the passage plan should be noted on the passage plan
  •  Updates need to be applied to both primary and secondary systems
  •  Records should be kept of when updates are received and applied
  •  During passage planning it should be checked that any licences concerning the use of the software and its updates will remain valid for a period in excess of the expected worst-case voyage duration. If this is not the case corrective action needs to be taken.

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Part 4

Keeping the seas clean

This is a guide for the professional mariner studying for their officer qualifications; it mixes facts about the certificates, revision questions, and then adds a bit more. It covers the ship ship certification associated with environmental protection; certification that includes the IOPP, NLS, IAPPC, IEE, anti-fouling certification and Ballast water convention certification.

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The International Code of Signals and IAMSAR manual in SOLAS

SOLAS V Regulation 21 – International Code of Signals and IAMSAR Manual

Those SOLAS V regulations are being slowly and surely visited in this blog; the evidence of growing hyperlinks on the index page confirms this, the gaps are disappearing. This post looks at the requirement for vessels to carry two publications, the International Code of Signals and IAMSAR manual.

RY flag signal being flown by HMS Warrior

Which ships are required to carry a copy of the International Code of Signals?

All ships which, in accordance with SOLAS are required to carry a radio installation shallCodeSignals carry the International Code of Signals. This means all passenger ships, and all cargo ships of 300 GT and over, when engaged on international voyages,

What does IAMSAR stand for?

International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue

Which ships are required to carry an IAMSAR manual?

SOLAS V states that all ships shall carry an up-to-date copy of Volume III of the (IAMSAR) Manual. However, SOLAS also gives flag states the authority to ammend this requirement. In the case of UK flagged ships the following ships are not required to carry the manual:

  • Ships below 150 gt on any voyage
  • Ships below 500 gt not engaged on international voyages
  • fishing vessels

Click here for information from the IMO on the IAMSAR manual>

What is the IAMSAR manual?

The Manual provides guidelines for a common aviation and maritime approach to IAMSAR

organizing and providing search and rescue (SAR) services. It is Jointly published by IMO and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

Click to find IAMSAR Manual on Amazon>

The three IAMSAR volumes

Volume I, Organization and Management

  • The global Search and Rescue (SAR) system conceptimg_20160915_071815_kindlephoto-118812233.jpg
  • The  establishment and improvement of national and regional SAR systems
  • Co-operation with neighbouring States to provide effective and economical SAR services.

Volume II, Mission Co-ordination

The planning  and co- ordination SAR operations and exercises.

Volume III, Mobile Facilities

To be carried aboard rescue units, aircraft and vessels to help with performance of a search, rescue or on-scene co-ordinator function, and with aspects of SAR that apply to their own emergencies.

A useful web page-IMO codes

Whilst wandering around the internet researching this post I stumbled across this useful resource from the IMO.

Abbreviations of IMO codes>


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Electromagnetic Compatibility and Navigational Equipment

A Handy Guide to SOLAS V Regulation 17 – Electromagnetic Compatibility

Polarcus Alima's bridge

After that brief pause to look at changes to MARPOL this blog now returns to exploring the regulations of SOLAS Chapter V.

Click here to read Regulation 17 on the UK MCA website>

What vessels must comply with Regulation 17?

Ships constructed on or after 1 July 2002

What does this regulation require regarding equipment testing of bridge equipment?

That all electrical and electronic equipment on the bridge or in the vicinity of the bridge is tested for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).

What resolution gives the requirements for Electromagnetic compatibility with navigational equipment?

A.813(19)

Click here to view the resolution>

What should the installation of electrical and electronic equipment avoid with regards to bridge navigation equipment?

Electromagnetic interference affecting the proper function of navigational systems and equipment. Portable electrical and electronic equipment shall not be operated on the bridge if it may affect the proper function of navigational systems and equipment.

What must masters ensure regarding portable electronic equipment being used on a ship’s bridge?

That no portable electrical or electronic equipment that might cause interference is used on or near the bridge. This includes not only ship’s equipment but also personal items such as  portable radios, hi-fi equipment and lap top computers. Non-transmitting equipment displaying the European “CE” mark will probably not cause interference.

Mobile phones, while not likely to cause electromagnetic interference, prove to be an increasing distraction to safe navigation. MGN (M&F) 299 – Interference with Safe Navigation through inappropriate use of Mobile Phones is to be complied with.

IECFor Electromagnetic Compatibility standards refer to IEC 60945

Click to search for IEC 60945 on Amazon>

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SOLAS V and LRIT

A handy guide to the SOLAS requirements for the carriage of LRIT

Dubai and ship

Another post, and another piece of equipment required by SOLAS V

What does LRIT stand for?

Long-Range Identification and Tracking

It a system that enables the global identification and tracking of ships using existing  GMDSS equipment on board (INMARSAT-C)

What SOLAS Regulation Requires LRIT to be carried?

Regulation 19-1

This regulation establishes provisions to enable Contracting Governments to undertake the long-range identification and tracking of ships.

 What ships are required to carry LRIT?

lrit

Click on the picture to see this diagram on the IMO website

The following ships engaged on international voyages:

  • Passenger ships, including high-speed passenger craft;
  • Cargo ships, including high-speed craft, of 300 gross tonnage and upwards; and
  • Mobile offshore drilling units.

Ships, operated exclusively within sea area A1 shall not be required to carry LRIT

 What information must be automatically transmitted?

Ships shall automatically transmit the following long-range identification and tracking information:

  •  The identity of the ship
  • The position of the ship (latitude and longitude)
  • The date and time of the position provided

A ship’s LRIT equipment must transmit position reports at 6-hour intervals unless a more frequent interval is requested remotely by an LRIT Data Centre

When can the equipment be switched off?

In exceptional circumstances and for the shortest duration possible where the operation Bridge widow with a gold screenis considered by the master to compromise the safety or security of the ship. In such a case, the master shall inform the Administration without undue delay and make an entry in the record of navigational activities and setting out the reasons for the decision and indicating the period during which the system or equipment was switched off.

Who can receive the information?

An Administration shall be entitled to receive such information about ships entitled to fly its flag irrespective of where such ships may be located.

A Contracting Government shall be entitled to receive such information about ships which have indicated their intention to enter a port facility, or a place under the jurisdiction of that Contracting Government, irrespective of where such ships may be located provided they are not located within the waters landward of the baselines of another Contracting Government.

A  Contracting Government shall be entitled to receive such information about ships entitled to fly the flag of other Contracting Governments, not intending to enter a port facility or a place under the jurisdiction of that Contracting Government, navigating within a distance not exceeding 1,000 nautical miles of its coast provided such ships are not located within the waters landward of the baselines, established in accordance with international law, of another Contracting Government.

 Can ship’s be charged for receipt of LRIT information?

Contracting Governments shall not impose any charges on ships in relation to the long-range identification and tracking information they may seek to receive.

What certification is required for LRIT?

A LRIT Conformance report.


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The maintenance of navigation equipment

Radars , radios and lights on ship's gantry mastSOLAS V Regulation 16-Maintenance of equipment.

On the Navregs  blog writing the front the exploration of SOLAS V continues . This time the focus is on maintenance.

What is the requirements for the maintenance of navigational equipment?

That adequate arrangements are in place to ensure that the performance of the equipment required by SOLAS Chapter V is maintained.

Note This will include ensuring that proper manuals enabling on-board maintenance are available and that that companies have ensured a comprehensive back-up service, including provision of both spares and maintenance engineers by manufacturers or their agents.

Can a vessel sail with defective navigational equipment?

Yes, where repair facilities are not readily available, provided suitable arrangements are made by the master to take the inoperative equipment or unavailable information into account in planning and executing a safe voyage to a port where repairs can take place. In such cases the vessel must obtain approval from their flag state. Approval to sail will not apply to cases when the defects are detected during a safety survey.

The decision to allow a vessel to sale with defective equipment  will depend on the equipment involved, the magnitude of the malfunction and it’s effect on the ship being able to complete the voyage safely.

Equipment manuals and IEC

IEC 60945, issued by the IEC states that equipment manuals must be:

  • Be written in English
  • Identify the category of the equipment or units to which they refer
  • in the case of equipment so designed that fault diagnosis and repair down to component level are practicable, provide full circuit diagrams, component layouts and a component parts list
  • In the case of equipment containing complex modules in which fault diagnosis and repair down to component level are not practicable, contain sufficient information to enable a defective complex module to be located, identified and replaced.

IEC is the international Electrotechnical Commission.

ISM and maintenance

ISM paragraph 5.10 contains the codes requirements for maintenance.

“5.10 Maintenance of the Ship and Equipment

5.10.1 The Company should establish procedures to ensure that the ship is maintained in conformity with the provisions of the relevant rules and regulations and with any additional requirements which may be established by the Company.

5.10.2 In meeting these requirements the Company should ensure that:
.1 inspections are held at appropriate intervals;
.2 any non-conformity is reported, with its possible cause, if known;
.3 appropriate corrective action is taken; and
.4 records of these activities are maintained”


Click here for a Really Handy Guide to the ISM code on Amazon (Kindle edition)>

wp-1448917864372.jpeg

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The use of heading and track control- a quick guide

A cargo ship at sunrise off DawlishAnother SOLAS V Regulation, and another regulation on steering gear. This one covers what used to be called the  ‘Auto Pilot’, before technology gave us many variations to play with.

The importance of the steering gear in safety of navigation is reflected in the fact there are several regulations devoted to it within SOLAS V. So far this blog has covered these two-

And now, it will look at a third.

SOLAS V Regulation 24 – Use of heading and/or track control systems-a quick guide

When must it be possible to immediately establish manual control of a ship’s steering?

  • In areas of high traffic density
  • in conditions of restricted visibility
  • in all other hazardous navigational situations

 “(l) The term “restricted visibility” means any condition in which visibility is restricted by fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms, sandstorms or any other similar causes.” COLREGS Rule 3

 

What must the Officer of the watch have immediately available in  areas of high traffic density, in conditions of restricted visibility, and in all other hazardous navigational situations?

The services of a qualified helmsperson who shall be ready at all times to take over steering control.

How should the changeover from automatic to manual steering and vice versa shall be made?

By or under the supervision of a responsible officer.

When at sea should the manual steering be tested?

After prolonged use of heading and/or track control systems, and before entering areas where navigation demands special caution.

What International standard refers to Heading Control standards?


 A Really Handy Guide to Ship Certification Part 3 is now available on Kindle

Cover of the Really handy Guide to Ship Certification, part 3.

The third in the series of revision guides on Ship certification is now available for the Kindle Platform.  SOLAS safety certification and Security are the themes this time, with a bit of HSSC thrown in for good measures.

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What standards are required for Navigational Bridge Equipment?

A ferry enclosed Navigation BridgeSOLAS-Regulation 18 – Approval, surveys and performance standards of navigational systems and equipment and voyage data recorder

This exploration of the safety of navigation section of SOLAS now looks at the performance standards required for ship’s bridge equipment. In addition to a quick look at the regulation 18 the post also provides a set of links to the related resolutions containing the standards.

What does Regulation 18 require?

That systems and equipment required to meet the requirements of regulations 19 and 20 shall be of a type approved by the Administration and  Systems and equipment installed on or after 1 July 2002 to perform the functional requirements of regulations 19 and 20 shall conform to appropriate performance standards not inferior to those adopted by the Organization.

What must you ensure if bridge equipment is installed of replaced?

That  the requirements of Regulation 18 are met.

UK MCA table of IMO performance standards

Bridge of a Fyffe ship

The IMO Standards

I have used the UK table of IMO performance standards list the resolutions and whenever possible linked across to the sources of the document. Some of these links are to IMO pages, others to National Authority web pages. 

General

  • IMO index of resolutions
  • A.694(17)– General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • A.813(19)-General requirements for Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

Intergration

Integrated Bridge Systems (IBS)

  • MSC.64 (67) Annex 1 -Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)– General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

 Integrated Navigation Systems (INS)

  • MSC.86 (70) Annex 3-Adoption of new and amended performance standards for Navigational equipment.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Direction

Compasses

Magnetic Compass

  • IMO A.382 (X)- Magnetic compasses carriage and performance standardsAn old Tug's bridge window
  • A.694(17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Gyro Compass

  • A.424 (XI)-Performance standards for gyro-compasses
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Gyro Compass- HSC

  • A.821 (19)Performance standards for gyro-compasses for high-speed craft
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Display of direction information

Gyro Compass Heading Repeater

  • A.424 (XI)-Performance standards for gyro-compasses
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Gyro Bearing Repeater

  • A.424 (XI)Performance standards for gyro-compasses.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Transmitting Heading Device (THD)

  • MSC.116(78)– Application of performance standards for Transmitting Heading Devices (THDs) to Marine Transmitting Magnetic Heading Devices (TMHDs)
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Transmitting Magnetic Heading Device (TMHD)

  • MSC.86 (70) ANNEX 2-Adoption of new and amended performance standards for Navigational equipment.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • SC.116(78)– Application of performance standards for Transmitting Heading Devices (THDs) to Marine Transmitting Magnetic Heading Devices (TMHDs)

Rate of Turn Indicator

  • A.526 (13)– Performance standards for rate of turn indicators
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids

Bridge wing of a ferry

Control

Automatic Pilots

  • A.342 (IX)-Recommendation on performance standards for automatic pilots.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Track Control Systems

  • MSC.74 (69) annex 2- Adoption of new and amended performance standards
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Automatic Pilots for HSC

  • A.822 (19)Performance standards for automatic steering aids (automatic pilots) for high-speed craft
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Distance

Speed and Distance Measuring Equipment (SDME)

  • A.478 (XII) Performance standards for devices to indicate speed an distance
  • A.824(19)-performance standards for devices to measure speed and distance
  • MSC.96(72)- Adoption of amendments to performance standards for devices to measure and indicate speed and distance

Echo Sounder

  • A.224 (VII) –Performance standards for Echo-Sounding equipment
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Rocky coastline in Cornwall

Position

Electronic charts

ECDIS Standard

  • A.817 (19) -Performance standards for Electronic Chart Display and information systems (ECDIS)
  • A.232(82)-Adoption of revised performance standards for Electronic Chart Display and information systems (ECDIS)
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Back up requirements

  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • MSC.64(67) annex 5- Adoption of new and amended performance standards.

RCDS mode of operation

  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • MSC.86(70) annex 4-Adoption of new and amended performance standards for Navigational equipment.

Electronic Navigation Systems

Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver (GNSS)GPS

  • A.819 (19)

Now

  • MSC.112(73)-Adoption of the revised performance standards for shipborne global positioning system (GPS) receiver equipment.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

GLONASS

  • MSC.53 (66)-Performance standards for shipborne GLONASS reciter equipment.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

DGPS / DGLONASS

  • MSC.64 (67) annex 2-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • MSC.114(73) -Adoption of the revised performance standards for shipborne DGPS and DGLONASS Maritime Radio Beacon Receiver equipment

Combined GPS/GLONASS

  • MSC.74 (69)-Adoption of new and amended performance standards
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Electronic Position Fixing Systems

Worldwide radio navigation system

  • A.815 (19)-Worldwide Navigation System.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Accuracy standards for navigation

  • A.529 (13)-Accuracy standards for Navigation
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Differential OMEGA

  • A.479 (XII) -Performance Standards for shipborne receivers for use with differential Omega.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

LORAN-C and CHAYKA

  • A.818 (19)-Performance standards for shipborne LORAN-C and chayka receivers
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Radars , radios and lights on ship's gantry mast

Detection

Radar

Consolidated performance standards for all new Radar Equipment (1/7/2008 and after)

  • MSC.192(79) -Adoption of the revised performance standards for Radar Equipment

Radar Equipment

Before 01/09/1984

  • A.222 (VII) -Performance standards for Radar Navigational Equipment
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Between 01/09/1984 and 31/12/1998

  • A.477 (XII)-Performance standards for Radar Equipment
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

On or after 01/01/1999

  • MSC.64(67) Annex 4-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.

Radar Equipment for HSC

  • A.820 (19)– Performance standards for navigational equipment for high speed craft.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Radar- Symbols for Controls

  • A.278 (VIII)Supplement on performance standards for navigational radar equipment
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Plotting

Automatic Radar Plotting Aid (ARPA)

  • A.422 (XI)-Performance standards for Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA)
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Electronic Plotting Aid (EPA)

  • MSC.64 (67) Annex 4-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Automatic Tracking Aid ATA

  • MSC.64 (67) Annex 4-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Enhancing

Radar Reflector

  • A.384 (X)-Performance standards for Radar Reflectors
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • MSC.164(78)-Revised performance standards for Radar Reflectors

Radar Beacons & Transponders

  • A.615 (15)Radar beacons and transponders
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

SARTS

  • A.802 (19)-Performance standards for Survival Craft Radar Transponders for use in Search a Rescue operations
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids

Main mast

Awareness

Automatic Identification System (AIS)

MSC.74 (69) annex 3

A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Lookout

Sound Reception System

  • MSC.86 (70)-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Night Vision Equipment

  • MSC.94 (72)-Performance standards for night vision equipment for High-Speed Craft (HSC)
  • A.694-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Signalling Lamps

  • MSC.95 (72)-Performance standards for daylight signalling lamps

Recording

Voyage Data Recorder (VDR)

  • A.861 (20)-Performance standards for Shipborne Voyage Data Recorders (VDRs)
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Simplified Voyage Data Recorder (S-VDR)

  • MSC.163(78)-Performance standards for Shipborne Simplified Voyage Data Recorders (VDRs)

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SOLAS V and Steering Gear

Stern of Isle of Wight Ferry Leaving Portsmouth

Another Regulation of SOLAS V-Safety of Navigation-explored

And so the wader through SOLAS V continues with its equipment related theme. This time its the steering gear, and in particular. the tests an Officer of the Watch must conduct.

Regulation 26-Steering gear- Testing and Drills

This Regulation within SOLAS V contains the requirements for the pre-sailing tests of steering gear tests.

Click here for the UK MCA guidance on Regulation 26>

When should the pre-departure testing of steering gear be conducted?

It should be tested within 12 hours before departure

What equipment should include within the steering gear testing procedure?

  • The main steering gear
  • The auxiliary steering gear
  • The remote steering gear control systems
  • The steering positions located on the navigation bridge
  • The emergency power supply
  • The rudder angle indicators in relation to the actual position of the rudder
  • The remote steering gear control system power failure alarms
  • The steering gear power unit failure alarms
  • The automatic isolating arrangements and other automatic equipment

What tests and checks should be included in the steering gear testing procedures?

  • The full movement of the rudder according to the required capabilities of the steering gear
  • A visual inspection for the steering gear and its connecting linkage
  • The operation of the means of communication between the navigation bridge and steering gear compartment

Movement-Visual-Communications

The flag state may waive the requirements to carry out the checks and tests for ships which regularly engage on short voyages. Such ships shall carry out these checks and tests at least once every week.

How often should the emergency steering gear be tested?

Emergency steering drills shall take place at least once every three months.

These drills shall include

  • Direct control within the steering gear compartment
  • The communications procedure with the navigation bridge
  • Where applicable, the operation of alternative power supplies

The date upon which the checks and tests are carried out and the date and details of emergency steering drills carried shall be recorded.

What should be displayed regarding the steering gear change over procedures?

A simple operating instructions with a block diagram showing the change-over procedures for remote steering gear control systems. This shall be permanently displayed on the navigation bridge and in the steering compartment.

Note: All ships’ officers concerned with the operation and/or maintenance of steering gear shall be familiar with the operation of the steering systems fitted on the ship and with the procedures for changing from one system to another.

Car ferry manouvering

In addition to the testing requirements, SOLAS V contains a short regulation requiring the use of more than one steering gear.

SOLAS V Regulation 25-Operation of Steering Gear

When should more than one steering gear be used?

In areas where navigation demands special caution,  when steering gear units are capable of simultaneous operation.

Click here for MCA guidance on Regulation 25>

 

A diversion beyond SOLAS V into the Construction section of the convention gives the performance standards required when testing the steering gear.

SOLAS II-1 Regulation 29-Steering Gear

How quick should a rudder turn?

At maximum ahead service speed the rudder must be capable of putting the rudder over:

From 35° on one side to 35° on the other side

and

From 35° on either side to 30° on the other side in not more than 28 seconds.

The auxiliary steering gear shall be of adequate strength and capable of steering the ship at navigable speed and be capable of putting the rudder over from 15° on one side to 15° on the other side in not more than 60 seconds at one half of the maximum ahead service speed or 7 knots, whichever is the greater.

Other online sources of information

 


A New Really Handy Guide has just been published

Cover of the Really handy Guide to Ship Certification, part 3. A Really Handy Guide to Ship Certification

Part 3

Keeping Vessels safe

 

The third in the series of revision guides on Ship certification is now available for the Kindle Platform.  SOLAS safety certification and Security are the themes this time, with a bit of HSSC thrown in for good measures.

Click here to see on Amazon>

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What are the requirements for VDRs?

Radars , radios and lights on ship's gantry mast

Voyage Data Recorders- the Maritime’Black box’

A quick guide to  The SOLAS requirements

The blog now returns to the series of posts on SOLAS V with a topic that follows on nicely from the last post on MAIB accident reporting requirements.

 

SOLAS V-Regulation 20 – Voyage Data Recorders

Click here for the UK MCA guidance of Regulation 20>

Why are VDRs required?

To assist in casualty investigations.

VDR Capsule as shown on IMO website, click to visit the site

Click For IMO page on VDRs

Click here for the IMO page on VDRs>

Which ships require to be fitted with an SDR?

Ships, when engaged on international voyages:

  • All passenger ships
  • Ships, other than passenger ships, of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2002

Which ships must be fitted with a VDR or a simplified voyage data recorder (S-VDR)?

  • Cargo ships of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards

Non-passenger ships on or above 3000 GT built after July 2002, and all passanger ships must have a VDR. Non-passenger ships built before July 2002 must have either a VDR or SVDR.  SDRs are Simplified data recorders that have less inputs then a full VDR.

What is a VDR?

Full information can be found at:

What is a VDRs Purpose

To maintain a store, in a secure and retrievable form, information concerning the position, movement, physical status, command and control of a ship over the period leading up to and following an incident.

This information is for use during any subsequent safety investigation to identify the causes of the incident.

Click here for MSC 1024-GUIDELINES ON VOYAGE DATA RECORDER (VDR)
OWNERSHIP AND RECOVERY

Who should the VDR information be made available to?

Information contained in a VDR should be made available to both the Administration and the shipowner.

What is included within the term ‘VDR’?

The complete system, including:

  • Any items required to interface with the sources of input signals and their processing and encoding
  • The final recording medium
  • The playback equipment
  • The power supply and dedicated reserve power source

img_20160915_132855_hdr_kindlephoto-117081169.jpg

What must a VDR do?

  • Continuously maintain sequential records of pr-selected data items relating to the status and output of the ship’s equipment, and command and control of the ship
  • Allow analysis of factors surrounding an incident
  • Include functions to perform a performance test at any time

The final recording medium should consist of the following items:

  • Fixed recording medium-Capable of being accessed after an accident- maintain data for 2 years after termination
  • Float-free recording medium;-6 months after termination,this is to  transmit a homing signal
  • Long-term recording medium- Accessible internaly

What Data items are to be recorded?Main mast

  • Date and time– From an external source
  • Ship’s position-From electronic position fixing system
  • Speed– over water and over ground
  • Heading– As ship’s heading source
  • Bridge audio-Covering all bridge workstations. At least 2 channels
  • Communications audio– On separate channel
  • Radar-Main displays of both radar installations
  • ECDIS-Record the display of ECDIS in use as primary means of navigation
  • Echo sounder– Depth information
  • Main alarms– Status of mandatory alarms
  • Rudder order and response– Includes settings of heading or track controller
  • Engine and thruster order and response-positions of any engine telegraphs or direct engine/propeller/Thruster controls, feedback indications and the control station in use
  • Hull openings status– To include all mandatory status information required to be carried on the bridge
  • Watertight and fire door status— To include all mandatory status information required to be carried on the bridge
  • Accelerations and hull stresses- When a ship is fitted with hull stress and response monitoring equipment
  • Wind speed and direction– Where a ship is fitted with a suitable sensor, wind speed and direction
  • AIS- All AIS data should be recorded
  • Rolling motion– If electronic inclinometer

What is a S-DVR?

A simplified voyage data recorder that fulfils the same requirements of an VDR, but with less inputs. They can be carried by cargo ships of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards instead of a VDR built after July 2002.

For full information see

IMO  RESOLUTION MSC.163(78)- PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR SHIPBORNE SIMPLIFIED VOYAGE DATA RECORDERS (S-VDRs)

What data items need to be recorded by a S-VDR?

  • Date and time– From an external source
  • Ship’s position-From electronic position fixing system
  • Speed– over water and over ground
  • Heading– As ship’s heading source
  • Bridge audio-Covering all bridge workstations. At least 2 channels
  • Communications audio– On separate channel
  • Radar data,- Main displays of of radar installations
  • AIS Data-If it is impossible to obtain radar data3 then AIS target data should be recorded as a source of information regarding other ships. If radar data is recorded,, AIS information may be recorded additionally as a  secondary source of information
  • Other items– Any additional data items required for a VDR should be recorded when the data is available.

Surveys and inspections

For more information see:

What test is the VDR and SDV-R subject to?

The voyage data recorder system, including all sensors, shall be subjected to an annual performance test.  The test shall be conducted by an approved testing or servicing facility

What is the objective of the annual VDR test?

  • To verify the accuracy, duration and recoverability of the recorded data
  • To determine the serviceability of all protective enclosures and devices fitted to aid location

A copy of the certificate of compliance issued by the testing facility, stating the date of compliance and the applicable performance standards, shall be retained on board the ship.


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What are the Carriage requirements for shippborne Navigation systems and equipment?

 

 A Quick Guide to SOLAS V Regulations 19

A ferry enclosed Navigation Bridge

This series of posts on SOLAS V continues with a quick guide on the requirements for the carriage of Navigation equipment. 

General

What regulation covers the Carriage requirements for ship’s navigation systems?

SOLAS V, Regulation 19- Carriage requirements for shipborne navigational systems and equipment.

What equipment is included within the regulation?

Click here to view the Regulation on the UK MCA website>

What ships need to comply with SOLAS V?

  •  New ships (1 July 2002) must comply fully with the requirements of this regulation.
  •  Existing ships may continue to comply with the regulations in force before 1 July 2002 except that they must be fitted with a GNSS receiver (which replaces the requirement for a RDF receiver) and AIS in accordance with a specified timetable

Click here for a table on the UK MCA website of carriage requirements>

Direction and SpeedEnclosed bridge wing

Compasses

What is the requirement to carry a Magnetic compass?

All ships irrespective of size shall have:

  • A properly adjusted standard magnetic compass or other means, independent of any power supply to determine the ship’s heading and display the reading at the main steering position
  • A pelorus or compass bearing device, or other means, independent of any power supply to take bearings over an arc of the horizon of 360°
  • Means of correcting heading and bearings to true at all times

All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition be fitted with:

  • A spare magnetic compass interchangeable with the magnetic compass, or other means to perform the function referred to by replacement or duplicate equipment

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition:

  • A properly adjusted transmitting heading device, or other means to transmit heading information for input to specified equipment

Ferry bridge from astern

What are the requirements to carry a Gyro Compass?

All ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A gyro compass, or other means, to determine and display their heading by shipborne non-magnetic means, being clearly readable by the helmsman at the main steering position. These means shall also transmit heading information for input to specified equipment.
  • A  gyro compass heading repeater, or other means, to supply heading information visually at the emergency steering position if provided
  • A gyro compass bearing repeater, or other means, to take bearings, over an arc of the horizon of 360º, using the gyro compass or other means. However ships less than 1,600 gross tonnage shall be fitted with such means as far as possible

Heading Control

What is the requirement for a heading or track control systems?BridgeandMoon

All ships of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A heading or track control system, or other means, to automatically control and keep to a heading and/or straight track

All ships of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall have:

  • A rate of turn indicator, or other means, to determine and display the rate of turn

Speed

What is the requirement to carry speed monitoring equipment?

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and all passenger ships:

  • Speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance through the water

All ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards:

  • Rudder, propeller, thrust, pitch and operational mode indicators, or other means to determine and display rudder angle, propeller revolutions, the force and direction of thrust and, if applicable, the force and direction of lateral thrust and the pitch and operational mode, all to be readable from the conning position

All ships of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards have:

Condor Ferry leaving Portsmouth

  • A speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance over the ground in the forward and athwartships direction

Navigation

Charts and publications

What is the requirement for a ship to carry navigational Charts?

Vessels of any size shall carry:

  • Nautical charts and nautical publications to plan and display the ship’s route for the intended voyage and to plot and monitor positions throughout the voyage.
  • An electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) is also accepted as meeting the chart carriage requirements
  • A back-up arrangement  if this function is partly or fully fulfilled by electronic means

An appropriate folio of paper nautical charts may be used as a back-up arrangement for ECDIS.

What is the requirement to carry ECDIS?

Ships engaged on international voyages shall be fitted with an Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) as follows:

Ships built since 2012

  •  Passenger ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July Commodore Clipper's bidge2012
  • Tankers of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2012
    Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2013
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 10,000 gross tonnage constructed on or after 1 July 2014
  • Passenger ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2012, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2014

Ships built prior to 2012

  • Tankers of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2012, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2015
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2013, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2016
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 20,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 50,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1 July 2013, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2017
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 20,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1 July 2013, not alter than the first survey on or after 1 July 2018

Click here for a copy of resolution A.817(19)>

Position Fixing

What position fixing must be carried?

  • A receiver for a global navigation satellite system or a terrestrial radio navigationMain mast system, or other means, suitable for use at all times throughout the intended voyage to establish and update the ship’s position by automatic means

What the requirement to carry an Echo Sounder?

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards:

  • An echo sounding device, or other electronic means, to measure and display the available depth of water

Collision Avoidance

Radar

What radar equipment must a ship carry?

If less than 150 gross tonnage and if practicable:

  • A radar reflector or other means, to enable detection by ships navigating by radar at both 9 and 3 GHZ

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships:

  • A 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of radar transponders and of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance
  • An electronic plotting aid, or other means, to plot electronically the range and bearing of targets to determine collision risk

All ships of 3000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A 3 GHz radar or where considered appropriate by the Administration a second 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance
  • A second automatic tracking aid, or other means to plot automatically the range
  • and bearing of other targets to determine collision risk

All ships of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • An automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA)  or other means, to plot automatically the range and bearing of at least 20 other targets, connected to a device to indicate speed and distance through the water, to determine collision risks and simulate a trial manoeuvre

CommunicationsSunset through a bridge window

Internal

What is the requirement for internal communications to steering positions?

  • A telephone, or other means, to communicate heading information to the emergency steering position, if provided

External

What must be fitted to an enclosed bridge?

  • When the ship’s bridge is totally enclosed and unless the Administration determines otherwise, a sound reception system, or other means, to enable the officer in charge of the navigational watch to hear sound signals and determine their direction

What  visual means of communication must be carried?

All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size:

  • A daylight signalling lamp, or other means to communicate by light during day and night using an energy source of electrical power not solely dependent upon the ship’s power supply

AIS

What ships must carry an AIS?Geared general cargo ship

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international voyages and cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards not engaged on international voyages and passenger ships irrespective of size shall be fitted with an automatic identification

What functions must an AIS provide?

  • Provide automatically to appropriately equipped shore stations, other ships and aircraft information, including the ship’s identity, type, position, course, speed, navigational status and other safety-related information
  • Receive automatically such information from similarly fitted ships;
  • Monitor and track ships
  • Exchange data with shore-based facilities

When Must AIS be used?

Ships fitted with AIS shall maintain AIS in operation at all times except where international agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of navigational information.

Click for UK MCA guidance on the use of AIS>

Click for IMO A 917(22) Guidelines for use of AIS

Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm System (BNAWS)

Which ships are required to carry a BNAWS?

  • All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and all passenger ship

When must a BNAWS be used?

The bridge navigational watch alarm system shall be in operation whenever the ship is underway at sea.

Click here for IACS requirements concerning navigation>

Click to search for the Bridge Procedures Guide on Amazon>


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