Category Archives: SOLAS

What are the Carriage requirements for shippborne Navigation systems and equipment?

 

 A Quick Guide to SOLAS V Regulations 19

A ferry enclosed Navigation Bridge

This series of posts on SOLAS V continues with a quick guide on the requirements for the carriage of Navigation equipment. 

General

What regulation covers the Carriage requirements for ship’s navigation systems?

SOLAS V, Regulation 19- Carriage requirements for shipborne navigational systems and equipment.

What equipment is included within the regulation?

Click here to view the Regulation on the UK MCA website>

What ships need to comply with SOLAS V?

  •  New ships (1 July 2002) must comply fully with the requirements of this regulation.
  •  Existing ships may continue to comply with the regulations in force before 1 July 2002 except that they must be fitted with a GNSS receiver (which replaces the requirement for a RDF receiver) and AIS in accordance with a specified timetable

Click here for a table on the UK MCA website of carriage requirements>

Direction and SpeedEnclosed bridge wing

Compasses

What is the requirement to carry a Magnetic compass?

All ships irrespective of size shall have:

  • A properly adjusted standard magnetic compass or other means, independent of any power supply to determine the ship’s heading and display the reading at the main steering position
  • A pelorus or compass bearing device, or other means, independent of any power supply to take bearings over an arc of the horizon of 360°
  • Means of correcting heading and bearings to true at all times

All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition be fitted with:

  • A spare magnetic compass interchangeable with the magnetic compass, or other means to perform the function referred to by replacement or duplicate equipment

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition:

  • A properly adjusted transmitting heading device, or other means to transmit heading information for input to specified equipment

Ferry bridge from astern

What are the requirements to carry a Gyro Compass?

All ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A gyro compass, or other means, to determine and display their heading by shipborne non-magnetic means, being clearly readable by the helmsman at the main steering position. These means shall also transmit heading information for input to specified equipment.
  • A  gyro compass heading repeater, or other means, to supply heading information visually at the emergency steering position if provided
  • A gyro compass bearing repeater, or other means, to take bearings, over an arc of the horizon of 360º, using the gyro compass or other means. However ships less than 1,600 gross tonnage shall be fitted with such means as far as possible

Heading Control

What is the requirement for a heading or track control systems?BridgeandMoon

All ships of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A heading or track control system, or other means, to automatically control and keep to a heading and/or straight track

All ships of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall have:

  • A rate of turn indicator, or other means, to determine and display the rate of turn

Speed

What is the requirement to carry speed monitoring equipment?

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and all passenger ships:

  • Speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance through the water

All ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards:

  • Rudder, propeller, thrust, pitch and operational mode indicators, or other means to determine and display rudder angle, propeller revolutions, the force and direction of thrust and, if applicable, the force and direction of lateral thrust and the pitch and operational mode, all to be readable from the conning position

All ships of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards have:

Condor Ferry leaving Portsmouth

  • A speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance over the ground in the forward and athwartships direction

Navigation

Charts and publications

What is the requirement for a ship to carry navigational Charts?

Vessels of any size shall carry:

  • Nautical charts and nautical publications to plan and display the ship’s route for the intended voyage and to plot and monitor positions throughout the voyage.
  • An electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) is also accepted as meeting the chart carriage requirements
  • A back-up arrangement  if this function is partly or fully fulfilled by electronic means

An appropriate folio of paper nautical charts may be used as a back-up arrangement for ECDIS.

What is the requirement to carry ECDIS?

Ships engaged on international voyages shall be fitted with an Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) as follows:

Ships built since 2012

  •  Passenger ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July Commodore Clipper's bidge2012
  • Tankers of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2012
    Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2013
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 10,000 gross tonnage constructed on or after 1 July 2014
  • Passenger ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2012, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2014

Ships built prior to 2012

  • Tankers of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2012, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2015
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2013, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2016
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 20,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 50,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1 July 2013, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2017
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 20,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1 July 2013, not alter than the first survey on or after 1 July 2018

Click here for a copy of resolution A.817(19)>

Position Fixing

What position fixing must be carried?

  • A receiver for a global navigation satellite system or a terrestrial radio navigationMain mast system, or other means, suitable for use at all times throughout the intended voyage to establish and update the ship’s position by automatic means

What the requirement to carry an Echo Sounder?

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards:

  • An echo sounding device, or other electronic means, to measure and display the available depth of water

Collision Avoidance

Radar

What radar equipment must a ship carry?

If less than 150 gross tonnage and if practicable:

  • A radar reflector or other means, to enable detection by ships navigating by radar at both 9 and 3 GHZ

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships:

  • A 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of radar transponders and of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance
  • An electronic plotting aid, or other means, to plot electronically the range and bearing of targets to determine collision risk

All ships of 3000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A 3 GHz radar or where considered appropriate by the Administration a second 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance
  • A second automatic tracking aid, or other means to plot automatically the range
  • and bearing of other targets to determine collision risk

All ships of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • An automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA)  or other means, to plot automatically the range and bearing of at least 20 other targets, connected to a device to indicate speed and distance through the water, to determine collision risks and simulate a trial manoeuvre

CommunicationsSunset through a bridge window

Internal

What is the requirement for internal communications to steering positions?

  • A telephone, or other means, to communicate heading information to the emergency steering position, if provided

External

What must be fitted to an enclosed bridge?

  • When the ship’s bridge is totally enclosed and unless the Administration determines otherwise, a sound reception system, or other means, to enable the officer in charge of the navigational watch to hear sound signals and determine their direction

What  visual means of communication must be carried?

All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size:

  • A daylight signalling lamp, or other means to communicate by light during day and night using an energy source of electrical power not solely dependent upon the ship’s power supply

AIS

What ships must carry an AIS?Geared general cargo ship

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international voyages and cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards not engaged on international voyages and passenger ships irrespective of size shall be fitted with an automatic identification

What functions must an AIS provide?

  • Provide automatically to appropriately equipped shore stations, other ships and aircraft information, including the ship’s identity, type, position, course, speed, navigational status and other safety-related information
  • Receive automatically such information from similarly fitted ships;
  • Monitor and track ships
  • Exchange data with shore-based facilities

When Must AIS be used?

Ships fitted with AIS shall maintain AIS in operation at all times except where international agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of navigational information.

Click for UK MCA guidance on the use of AIS>

Click for IMO A 917(22) Guidelines for use of AIS

Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm System (BNAWS)

Which ships are required to carry a BNAWS?

  • All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and all passenger ship

When must a BNAWS be used?

The bridge navigational watch alarm system shall be in operation whenever the ship is underway at sea.

Click here for IACS requirements concerning navigation>

Click to search for the Bridge Procedures Guide on Amazon>


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Pilot boarding- The SOLAS requirements

​This  exploration of SOLAS V will not attempt to follow any order. Bypassing all the earlier Regulations, I will jump straight into Regulation 23, pilot transfer arrangements.

Southampton Pilot Boat-Navsregs

Regulation 23 – Pilot Transfer Arrangements- A Handy Revision Guide

This post contains some of the key facts from SOLAS covering pilot boarding arrangements, and includes information on how and where a pilot ladder should be rigged.

Which ships must comply with the pilot boarding regulations?

Ships engaged on voyages in the course of which pilots may be employed.

Equipment and arrangements for pilot transfer which are provided on ships before 1 July 2012 shall at least comply with the requirements of regulations in SOLAS 1974, in force prior to that date.

What are the requirements of pilot transfer arrangements?

PilotName

  • All arrangements used for pilot transfer shall efficiently fulfil their purpose of enabling pilots to embark and disembark safely
  • The appliances shall be kept clean, properly maintained and stowed , and shall be regularly inspected
  • The appliances shall be used solely for the embarkation and disembarkation of personnel.
  • An accommodation ladder shall be used in conjunction with the pilot ladder, or other equally safe and convenient means, whenever the distance from the surface of the water to the point of access to the ship is more than 9 m.

Note: Mechanical pilot hoists shall not be used.

The rigging of pilot transfer arrangements

  • The rigging of the pilot transfer arrangements, and the embarkation of a pilot shall be supervised by a responsible officer having means of communication with the bridge.
  • The responsible officer who shall also arrange for the escort of the pilot by a safe route to and from the  bridge.
  • Personnel engaged in rigging and operating any mechanical equipment shall be instructed in the safe procedures to be adopted, and the equipment shall be tested prior to use.

 

Certification, marking and record keeping

  •  A pilot ladder shall be certified by the manufacturer as complying with SOLAS, or with an international standard acceptable to the Organization
  • All pilot ladders shall be clearly identified with tags or other permanent marking so as to enable identification of each appliance
  • A record shall be kept on the ship as to the date an identified ladder is placed into service and any repairs conducted

Pilot boat bow

Where should the pilot transfer arrangements be located?

Arrangements should enable the pilot to embark and disembark safely on either side of the ship.

Pilot ladders

Maximum 9 metres- the distance to remember

  • A pilot ladder must require a  climb of not less than 1.5 m and not more than 9 m above the surface of the water
  • It must be  is clear of any possible discharges from the ship
  • It  is within the parallel body length of the ship and, as far as is practicable, within the mid-ship half length of the ship
  • Each step must rest firmly against the ship’s side. Where constructional features would prevent this, special arrangements shall, to the satisfaction of the Administration, be made to ensure that persons are able to embark and disembark safely
  • The single length of pilot ladder is capable of reaching the water and allowance is made for all conditions of loading and trim of the ship, and for an adverse list of 15°

When accommodation ladders are used in conjunction with pilot ladders

  •  The accommodation ladder shall be sited leading aft
  •  Means shall be provided to secure the lower platform of the accommodation ladder firmly to the ship’s side
  • The lower end of the accommodation ladder is to be within within the parallel body length of the ship and, as far as is practicable, within the mid-ship half length
  • The lower end of the accommodation ladder is to be  clear of all discharges
  • Means shall be provided to secure the pilot ladder and manropes to the ship’s side at a point of nominally 1.5 m above the bottom platform of the accommodation ladder
  • When there is a trapdoor in the bottom platform, the pilot ladder and man ropes shall be rigged through the trapdoor  extending above the platform to the height of the handrail

What are the requirements for access to the ship’s deck?

See MSC 1428 for poster

  • There must be safe, convenient and unobstructed passage between the head of the pilot ladder, or of any accommodation ladder or other appliance, and the ship’s deck.
  • When a gateway in the rails or bulwark is used, adequate handholds shall be provided
  • When a bulwark ladder is used, two handhold stanchions rigidly secured to the ship’s structure at or near their bases and at higher points shall be fitted
  • A bulwark ladder shall be securely attached to the ship to prevent overturning

Shipside doors

Shipside doors used for pilot transfer shall not open outwards.

Equipment required at the pilot boarding location

The following associated equipment shall be kept at hand ready for immediate use when persons are being transferred:

  • Two man-ropes of not less than 28 mm and not more than 32 mm in diameter. The man-ropes shall be fixed at the rope end to the ring plate fixed on deck and shall be ready for use when required by the pilot.
  • A lifebuoy equipped with a self-igniting light
  • A heaving line
  •  When required, stanchions and bulwark ladders
  • Adequate lighting to illuminate the transfer arrangements overside and the position on deck where a person embarks or disembarks.

Some sources of useful information


A Really Handy Book to Learn the Collision Regulations

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The Safety of Navigation- what is in SOLAS Chapter V?

After many months of exploring ship Certification this blog will now return to some bridge watch keeping related topics. So for those studying for officer of the watch, Mates, and Masters this will be well worth following. For those studying for engineering tickets the keep an eye on the topics for I am sure I will wander off into non-navigation subjects along the way.


Why is SOLAS V  a ‘must read’ for bridge watchkeepers?

If you are a bridge watchkeeper and have the time to read any one part of SOLAS, then this chapter should be it. Within its many regulations are many directly relevant to the keeping of a safe navigational watch.

The chapter is even more useful when used as a starting point for further study; as a framework to hang other knowledge on.

This series of posts will do just that, use some of the more important regulations as a starting point of an exploration of The Safety of Navigation.

What ships does SOLAS V apply to?

The chapter applies to all ships on all voyages, except:

  • Warships, naval auxiliaries and other ships owned or operated by a Contracting Government and used only on government non-commercial service. However, such vessels are  encouraged to act in a manner consistent, so far as reasonable and practicable, with the chapter.
  • Vessels in the Great Lakes and connected waters when navigating west of Quebec.

Flag states can decide how much of the chapter applies to the following vesses:

  • Ships operating solely in waters landward of the baselines which are established in accordance with international law.
  • Ships below 150 gross tonnage engaged on any voyage
  • Ships below 500 gross tonnage not engaged on international voyages
  • Fishing vessels

Click here for the UK MCA guidance on Chapter V>

The contents of SOLAS Chapter V

The Regulations


The Really Handy Study Guides

Navsregs publishes a range of revision guides for Mariners..

These are all available in the Kindle Format, and cover the Collision Regulations, semananship and Certification.

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What is in SOLAS Chapter XI?

This blog will now take a pause in its exploration of ship’scertificates.  But before it moves on to the next topic here is a very quick post on an eclectic chapter in SOLAS.


Special Measures to Enhance Maritime Safety

SOLAS Chapter XI is a mixture of assorted Regulations, some covering safety, and some security. Hidden within this Chapter are some important Regulations that may be expected to be contained in other parts of SOLAS.

Contents of the Chapter

  • Regulation 1 – Authorization of Recognized Organizations
  • Regulation 2 – Enhanced Surveys
  • Regulation 3 – Ship Identification Number
  • Regulation 3-1 – Company and Registered Owner Identification Number
  •  Regulation 4 – Port State Control on Operational Requirements 
  •  Regulation 5 – Continuous Synopsis Record
  •  Regulation 6 – Additional Requirements for the Investigation of Marine Casualties and Incidents 
  •  Regulation 7 – Atmosphere Testing Instrument for Enclosed Spaces

    What useful information can be found in these regulations?

    Regulation 2  contains the additional hull survey requirements for bulk carriers and oil tankers.This Regulation mandates the requirement to comply with the ESP code.

    Regulation 3 contains the requirements to display  the vessels IMO number.

    Regulation 5 contains the requirements to hold a CSR.

    Regulation 7 contains the requirement to hold portable atmosphere testing equipment.


    To find SOLAS and other conventions on Amazon, click here>

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    The Maritime Conventions

    dscf3338SOLAS, MARPOL and beyond

    A Handy Revision Guide to the Conventions

    Throughout this series of posts on Ship Certification various International Conventions have often been referred to. Therefore this is good time to create a summary of the the Key conventions.  To keep things simple, I have ordered and categorised them in the same manner as the certification posts.

    The IMO conventions

    The majority of the conventions, but not all, are produced by the IMO.

    Identifying the ship

    wp-1456347039822.jpg

    United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)     

    United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982

    “The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea lays down a comprehensive regime of law and order in the world’s oceans and seas establishing rules governing all uses of the oceans and their resources. It enshrines the notion that all problems of ocean space are closely interrelated and need to be addressed as a whole.”

    The issues covered by the Convention include:

    • Territorial seas
    • Innocent passage
    • Transit passage through straits
    • Exclusive economic zones  (EEZ)
    • Continental shelf exploitation
    • Freedoms of the high sea
    • Marine pollution responsibilities
    • Disputes

    The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

    The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea is an independent judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to adjudicate disputes arising out of the interpretation and application of the Convention.

    Defining the shipwpid-wp-1437630402998.jpeg

    International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969 (Tonnage Convention)

    This Convention introduced an universal tonnage measurement system. The Convention provides for gross and net tonnages, both of which are calculated independently.

    Gross tonnage and net tonnage

    The Convention meant a transition from the traditionally used terms gross register tons (grt) and net register tons (nrt) to gross tonnage(GT) and net tonnage (NT).

    Some definitions from the Convention

    “(4) “gross tonnage” means the measure of the overall size of a ship determined in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention;

    (5) “net tonnage” means the measure of the useful capacity of a ship determined in accordance with the provisions of the present Convention;”

    International Convention on Load Lines, 1966, as Loadlinesmodified by the 1988 Protocol relating thereto, as amended (Load Lines Convention)

    “It has long been recognized that limitations on the draught to which a ship may be loaded make a significant contribution to her safety. These limits are given in the form of freeboards, which constitute, besides external weathertight and watertight integrity, the main objective of the Convention.” IMO website

    Contents of the convention

    Annex I

    • Chapter I – General
    • Chapter II – Conditions of assignment of freeboard
    • Chapter III – Freeboards
    • Chapter IV – Special requirements for ships assigned timber freeboards

    Annex II covers Zones, areas and seasonal periods

    Annex III contains certificates, including the International Load Line Certificate

    Managing the vessel

    The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certificationwpid-157765645208.jpg
    and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW), 1978

    International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers entered into force in 1984. The main purpose of the Convention is to promote safety of life and property at sea and the protection of the marine environment by establishing in common agreement international standards of training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers.

    The Manila amendments to the STCW Convention and Code were adopted on 25 June 2010, marking a major revision of the STCW Convention and Code.

    The STCW regulations are supported by sections by the STCW Code. The Convention contains basic requirements which are then enlarged upon and explained in the Code.

    Part A of the Code is mandatory. The minimum standards of competence required for seagoing personnel are given in detail in a series of tables.

    Part B of the Code contains recommended guidance which is intended to help implement the Convention.

    ILO Maritime Labour Convention, (MLC 2006) – As amended by the 2014DSCF3260 Amendment (MLC)

    The Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 (“MLC, 2006”) establishes minimum working and living standards for all seafarers working on ships flying the flags of ratifying countries. It is widely known as the “seafarers’ bill of rights,”

    The convention is an international labour Convention adopted by the International Labour Organization (ILO).

    Keeping the ship safe

    The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974img_20151119_111728.jpg

    “The SOLAS Convention in its successive forms is generally regarded as the most important of all international treaties concerning the safety of merchant ships. The first version was adopted in 1914, in response to the Titanic disaster, the second in 1929, the third in 1948, and the fourth in 1960. The 1974 version includes the tacit acceptance procedure – which provides that an amendment shall enter into force on a specified date unless, before that date, objections to the amendment are received from an agreed number of Parties.” IMO Website

    The 1974 Convention has been updated and amended on numerous occasions. The Convention in force today is sometimes referred to as SOLAS, 1974, as amended.

    Keeping the seas clean

    The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from wpid-10152154002370209.jpgShips, 1973 (MARPOL)

    MARPOL is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes.

    The MARPOL Convention was adopted on 2 November 1973 at IMO.  MARPOL has been updated by amendments over the years.

    The convention currently includes six technical Annexes.

    International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004 (BWM Convention)aquariamcircleedited

    The Convention aims to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through the control and management of ships’ ballast water and sediments. It enters into force on 8 September 2017.

    Under the Convention, all ships in international traffic are required to manage their ballast water and sediments to a certain standard, according to a ship-specific ballast water management plan. All ships will also have to carry a ballast water record book and an international ballast water management certificate.

    International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships, 2001 (AFS Convention)

    The Convention prohibits the use of harmful organotins in anti-fouling paints used on ships and establishes a mechanism to prevent the potential future use of other harmful substances in anti-fouling systems.

    Annex I of the Convention states that all ships shall not apply or re-apply organotins compounds which act as biocides in anti-fouling systems.

    International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, 2001 (Bunkers Convention)

    The Convention was adopted to ensure that adequate, prompt, and effective compensation is available to persons who suffer damage caused by spills of oil, when carried as fuel in ships’ bunkers

    International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1992 (CLC Convention)

    The Convention covers those who suffer oil pollution damage resulting from maritime casualties involving oil-carrying ships. The Convention places the liability for such damage on the owner of the ship from which the polluting oil escaped or was discharged.

    The Convention applies to seagoing vessels carrying oil in bulk as cargo, but only ships carrying more than 2,000 tons of oil are required to maintain insurance in respect of oil pollution damage.

    Other Conventions

    Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREGs)

    The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships, 2009caribillemillnarrow

    The Hong Kong Convention is aimed at ensuring that ships, when being recycled after reaching the end of their operational lives, do not pose any unnecessary risk to human health and safety or to the environment.

    Its regulations cover:

    • The design, construction, operation and preparation of ships so as to facilitate safe and environmentally sound recycling
    • The operation of ship recycling facilities in a safe and environmentally sound manner
    • The establishment of an appropriate enforcement mechanism for ship recycling, incorporating certification and reporting requirements

    Ships to be sent for recycling will be required to carry an inventory of hazardous materials, which will be specific to each ship.

    International Convention on Salvage

    The Convention replaced the 1910 convention on the law of salvage which incorporated the “‘no cure, no pay” principle. The 1989 Convention added a provision for an enhanced salvage award taking into account the skill and efforts of the salvors in preventing or minimizing damage to the environment.

    International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue (SAR)

    The 1979 Convention was aimed at developing an international SAR plan, so that, no matter where an accident occurs, the rescue of persons in distress at sea will be co-ordinated by a SAR organization and, when necessary, by co-operation between neighbouring SAR organizations.

    As this series on Certification  draws to a close this post will no doubt be ‘tweaked’ and expanded, and may form the basis of its own page on spawn more pots….maybe. Meanwhile the next certificate is awaiting exploring.


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     A Really Handy Guide to Ship Certification (part 1) has just been added to the range. More to follow shortly in the series.

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    Document of Authorization to Carry Grain- A Handy Guide

    This blog has already covered two cargo related certificates within earlier sections:

    Now it will carry on to explore some certificates specific to certain cargoes, starting with grain.

    FoweyCoaster

    Carrying grain safely

    The requirement for grain specific documentation arises from the safety risk arising from grain’s characteristics.  Grain settles about 2% of volume, a settling which causes small voids to open up near the surface that allow the grain to shift. This free flowing of the can greatly  reduce the stability of the vessel, making grain one of the most dangerous cargoes.

    Why must a ship carry a Document of Authourisation to Carry Grain?

    It is required by SOLAS  Chapter VI Safety of Cargoes.

    Regulation 9 – Requirements for Cargo Ships Carrying Grain

    “1 In addition to any other applicable requirements of the present regulations, a cargo ship carrying grain shall comply with the requirements of the International Grain Code, and hold a document of authorization as required by that Code. For the purpose of this regulation, the requirements of the Code shall be treated as mandatory.

    2 A ship without such a document shall not load grain until the master satisfies the Administration, or the Contracting Government of the port of loading on behalf of the Administration, that the ship will comply with the requirements of the International Grain Code in its proposed loaded condition.”

    What code must a grain carrying ship conform to?

    The international code for the safe carriage of grain in bulk, this is normally referred to GrainCodeas ‘The Grain Code’ .

    What is grain?

    Grain Code 2 Definitions

    2.1. The term grain covers wheat, maize (corn), oats, rye, barley, rice, pulses, seeds and processed forms thereof, whose behaviour is similar to that of grain in its natural state

    1.1. This Code applies to ships regardless of size, including those of less than 500 tons gross tonnage, engaged in the carriage of grain in bulk, to which part C of chapter VI of the 1974 SOLAS Convention, as amended, applies.

    What does the Document of authorization signify

    It is evidence that the ship is capable of complying with the requirements of the grain code.

    A ship without such a document of authorization shall not load grain until the master demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Administration, or of the Contracting Government of the port of loading acting on behalf of the Administration, that, in its loaded condition for the intended voyage, the ship complies with the requirements of the code.

    Where must the document be held?

    The document shall accompany or be incorporated into the grain loading manual.

    Click here for the IMO Grain Code page>

    What is shown on the Document?

    • Name of ship
    • Distinctive number or letters
    • Port of Registry
    • IMO number
    • A statement that the ship is capable of complying with the requirements of the International Grain Code in accordance with the approved grain loading stability information booklet.

    When can a ship load without a document of authorization?

    When:

    • The total weight of the bulk grain shall not exceed one third of the deadweight of the ship
    • All filled compartments, trimmed, shall be fitted with centreline divisions extending, for the full length of such compartments, downwards from the underside of the deck or hatch covers to a distance below the deck line of at least one eighth of the maximum breadth of the compartment or 2.4 m, whichever is the greater, except that saucers  may be accepted in lieu of a centreline division in and beneath a hatchway except in the case of linseed and other seeds having similar properties;
    • All hatches to filled compartments, trimmed, shall be closed and covers secured in place
    • All free grain surfaces in partly filled cargo space shall be trimmed level and secured
    • Throughout the voyage the metacentric height after correction for the free surface effects of liquids in tanks shall be 0.3 m or that given by a formula given in the grain code
       
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    ​SOLAS  Chapter VI-Safety of Cargoes

     

    SOLAS Chapter VI – Carriage of Cargoes and Oil Fuels

    Click for SOLAS on Amazon

    What does it cover?

    Before this blog dives into the realms of grain cargoes certification it will have a quick look at the contents of SOLAS Chapter VI.  A quick look that may be useful in hunting  for cargo related legislation.

    Contents of Chapter VI

    Part A – General Provisions

    • Regulation 1 – Application
    • Regulating 1-1 – Definitions
    • Regulation 1-2 – Requirements for the Carriage of Solid Bulk Cargoes other than Grain
    • Regulation 2 – Cargo Information
    • Regulation 3 – Oxygen Analysis and Gas Detection Equipment
    • Regulation 4 – The Use of Pesticides in Ships
    • Regulation 5 – Stowage and Securing
    • Regulation 5-1 – Material Safety Data Sheets
    • Regulation 5-2 – Prohibition of the Blending of Bulk Liquid Cargoes and Production Processes during Sea Voyages

    Part B – Special Provisions for Solid Bulk Cargoes

    • Regulation 6 – Acceptability for Shipment
    • Regulation 7 – Loading, Unloading and Stowage of Solid Bulk Cargoes

    Part C – Carriage of Grain

    • Regulation 8 – Definitions
    • Regulation 9 – Requirements for Cargo Ships Carrying Grain

    Some recommended links on cargo safety

    The next post will move on to explore the certification associated with Regulation 9, the carriage of grain.

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    SOLAS and dangerous goods

    img_20160302_070228_pan.jpg

    After the last handful of posts plugging some equipment related certificates this series will move on to the next group of certificates, those covering dangerous cargoes. Before starting on the certificates themselves there will be a brief pause to put the documents in perspective.

    SOLAS  Chapter VII – Carriage of dangerous goods

    Some Handy Revision Notes

    SOLAS Chapter VII covers the carriage of dangerous goods at sea. It  is split into four parts (covering:

    • Part A – Dangerous goods in packaged form
    • Part A-1 -Dangerous goods in solid form in bulk
    • Part B Dangerous liquid chemicals in bulk
    • Part C Liquefied gases in bulk
    • Part D  Packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high-level radioactive waste

    Part A – Carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form

    What does it cover?imdg-1

    The classification, packing, marking, labelling and placarding, documentation and stowage of dangerous goods.

    What is the related code?

    International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code

    Click here for the IMO IMDG page>

    What is the certification required?

    Document of Compliance for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods in Packaged or Dry Bulk Form

    Part A-1 – Carriage of dangerous goods in solid form in bulk

    imsbc-codeWhat does it cover?

    The documentation, stowage and segregation requirements, and requires reporting of incidents involving such goods.

    What is the related codes?

    • The International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code
    • International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Codeimdg-code-cover

    Note that the IMSBC Code does not cover the carriage of grain in bulk.  The specific requirements for the transport of grain are covered by the International Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk

    What is the certification required?

    Document of Compliance for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods in Packaged or Dry Bulk Form

    Part B- Ships carrying dangerous liquid chemicals in bulk

    What does it cover?

    Construction and equipment

    What is the related code?

    International Bulk Chemical Code (IBC Code).ibccode

    What is the certification required?

    Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk

    See also the NLS certificate

    Part C-ships carrying liquefied gases in bulk and gas carriersimdg-2

    What does it cover?

    The Construction and equipment

    What is the related code?

    The International Gas Carrier Code (IGC Code).igc-code

    What is the certification required?

    Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of Liquefied Gases in Bulk

    Part D-packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastesimdg-7

    What does it cover?

    Special requirements for the carriage

    What is the related code?

    Irradiated Nuclear Fuel, Plutonium and High-Level Radioactive Wastes on Board Ships (INF Code).

    What is the certification required?

    International Certificate of Fitness for the Carriage of INF Cargo

    Useful links for further information

    UK MGN 340 IMDG code and cargoes carried in cargo transport units

    UK MCA dangerous goods at sea M Notices

    MGN 36 Carrying dangerous goods in packaged or dry form

     

     

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    LRIT- Conformance Test Report

    wpid-wp-1438103199200.jpegLong-Range Identification and Tracking

    A revision guide to the Conformance Test Report

    Filling the certification gaps in these posts with another communications equipment related document.

    What is LRIT?

    Long-Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) system, a system that enables the global identification and tracking of ships using existing  GMDSS equipment on board (INMARSAT-C).

    A ship’s LRIT equipment must transmit position reports at 6-hour intervals unless a more frequent interval is requested remotely by an LRIT Data Center.

     

    Click here for the IMO webpage on LRIT>

    Why is the report required?

    It us required under SOLAS chapter V Regulation 19.

    Click here for the UK MCA copy of chapter V>

    Which ships are required to carry LRIT?

    The following ships engaged on international voyages:

    • Passenger ships
    • Cargo ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards
    • Mobile offshore drilling units

    How often must a vessel have a LRIT Conformance Test?

    The LRIT conformance test certificate has no expiry date as long as the equipment remains the same. A retest may be required when:

    • A vessel changes or upgrades the LRIT equipment
    • A vessel changes flags

    Note: ships shall automatically transmit the following long-range identification and tracking information:

    • The identity of the ship
    • The position of the ship
    • The date and time of the position provided.

    What information is contained on the Conformance Test Report?

    Ref: MSC.1/Circ.1307

    • Name of ship
    • Port of Registry
    • Distinctive number or letters
    • IMO number
    • Maritime Mobile Service Identifier
    • Gross Tonnage
    • Sea areas in which the ship is certified to operate
    • Sea areas for which this report is valid
    • Application Service Provider conducting the test
    • Details of the shipborne equipment used to transmit LRIT information (e.g., maker model, serial number and shipborne equipment identifier)

    What does the report certify?

    • That the equipment has been found to meet the requirement of the provision of regulations V/19-1.6 and V/19-1.7
    • Is of a type approved by the Administration and meets the required performance standards
    • Has undergone conformance testing in accordance with the procedures and provisions set out in MSC.1/Circ.1307, and has shown that it can operate within the tolerances of the acceptance criteria stated in the circular.

     

    Where to find more information on LRIT

    UK MCA MGN 441 Changes to MCA’s 2002 SOLAS V Publication, Arising out of Amendments to SOLAS Chapter V>.

     

     

    USCG LRIT frequently asked questions>

     

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