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When to show Navigation lights

Ferry mast

Turn on the Navigation Lights

Bit of backtracking in this post, back to the fundamental question of when to turn the navigation lights on. 

What COLREG  Rule states when navigation lights should be shown?

Rule 20

​When must Navigation lights be shown?

  • Sunset to Sunrise-During the day
  • Sunrise to Sunset-During the night
  • In restricted visibility
  • May be exhibited in all other circumstances when it is deemed necessary.

What other lights can be shown from sunset to sunrise?

No other lights shall be exhibited, except such lights as:

  • Cannot be mistaken for the lights specified in the COLREGS
  • Do not impair their visibility or distinctive characterer
  • Do not Interfere with the keeping of a proper look-out

What is Restricted Visibility?

This is  any condition in which visibility is restricted by:

  • Fog
  • Mist
  • Falling snow
  • Heavy rainstorms
  • Sandstorms
  • Any other similar causes.

See COLREG Rule 3


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Navigation lights- The horizontal cut-offs

A quick guide to some of the details in COLREG Annex 1

Sidelights on MV Balmoral

Following the theme of Navigation Light horizontal arcs this post now descended into the details of Annex 1.

Colreg Annex 1

What part of the Rules defines the horizontal cut-offs of Navigation Light?

Annex 1 section 9

What is the horizontal cut off for sidelights in the forward direction?

In the forward direction they should show the minimum required intensities.

The intensities shall decrease to reach practical cut-off between 1 degree and 3 degrees outside the prescribed sectors.

What is the cut-off requirements for the other sectors?

For sternlights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam for Masthead lights MV Balmoralsidelights, the minimum required intensities shall be maintained over the arc of the horizon up to 5 degrees  of the prescribed limits. 

From 5 degrees within the sectors the intensity may decrease by 50 percent up to the prescribed limits; it shall decrease steadily to reach practical cut-off at not more than 5 degrees outside the prescribed sectors.

How much can an all-round light be obscured?

Not more than 6 degrees, except anchor lights which need not be placed at an impracticable height above the hull.NUC lights

If it is impracticable to comply with these requirements by exhibiting only one all-round light, two all-round lights shall be used suitably positioned or screened so that they appear, as far as practicable, as one light at a distance of one mile.

Sidelight screens

The sidelights of vessels of 20 metres or more in length shall be fitted with inboard screens painted matt black, and meeting the horizontal sector  requirements of  Annex 1.

On vessels of less than 20 metres in length the sidelights, if necessary to meet the horizontal sector  requirements of the  Annex, shall be fitted with inboard matt black screens.

With a combined lantern with a very narrow division between the green and red sections, external screens need not be fitted.

There is another level of detail below COLREG Annex 1, and that is contained within an IMO Resolution.

IMO RESOLUTION MSC.253(83)

Perfomance standards for Navigation lights

Within MSC 253 there are paragraphs giving more details on cut offs and intensity.

Cut-off

In the horizontal directions where decrease of luminous intensity to ìpractical cut-offî is required by section 9 of Annex I to COLREGs, the luminous intensity should be no more than 10% of the average luminous intensity within the prescribed sector for vessels not less than 12 m in length.

Uniformity of intensity

Within the prescribed sector in which the minimum luminous intensity is required  the horizontal intensity distribution of the light should be uniform so that the measured minimum and maximum luminous intensity values do not differ by more than a factor of 1.5 for vessels not less than 12 m in length.

This is to avoid luminous intensity changes which may result in the appearance of a flashing light

Click here for IMO MSC 253>


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Navigation Lights-Power Driven Vessels

It is time to start a new series of posts, a series that returns to explore COLREGS. The series of posts will start its  dive into the Navigation Light Rules with the most common set of lights seen deep sea, a power-driven vessel of  50  metres in length underway.

Note: These posts will not reproduce the Rules word perfect, so please refer to copy of the Regulations for the original wording.

Power Driven Vessel Lights

What Rule covers power driven vessels underway?

RULE 23 Power-driven Vessels Underway

It is important to note when interpreting this Rule two of the definitions in Rule 3, namely

  • That Power-driven vessel means any vessel propelled by machinery
  • Underway means that a vessel is not at anchor, or made fast to the shore, or aground

What is contained in Rule 23?

  • (a) What a power driven Vessel Underway must exhibit
  • (b) What an air cushion vessel should exhibit
  • (c) What a power driven vessel of less than 12 metres in length should exhibit

What lights must a power driven vessel underway show?Power Driven vessel end on

  • Masthead light forward
  • A second masthead light abaft of and higher than the forward one; a vessel of less than 50 meters in length shall not be obliged to exhibit such light but may do so
  • sidelights
  • A stern light

The lights of smalI power driven vessels

Of less than 12 meters in length

May insted of the masthead lights and side lights lights exhibit an all-round white light and sidelights.

Of less less than 7 meters in length whose maximum speed does not exceed 7 knots

May exhibit an all round white light instead of masthead, side and stern lights, but shall, if practicable, also exhibit sidelights.

How may the positioning of the lights of a power driven vessel less than 12 meters in length differ?

The masthead light or all-round white light may be displaced from the fore and aft centerline of the vessel if centerline fitting is not practicable, as long as the sidelights are combined in one lantern which shall be carried on the fore and aft centerline of the vessel or located as nearly as Power Driven Vessel from Asternpracticable in the same fore and aft line as the masthead light or the all-round white light.

The size requirements list simplified

  • 50m: Two masthead lights required
  • 12m: May combine masthead and stern lights in all round light
  • 7m/7knts: May replace all the lights with an all round light

The next post will look at the meanings of the key terms in Rule 23.


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COLREGS and Navigation lights

It is time for a change of tack across on the Navregs blog, to leave the SOLAS V  posts to one side for a bit and delve down into a subject area not covered for a while, the COLREGS. This time it is lights.

The posts will start at the generic level, and then descend into more and more detail, and see where it finally reaches the bottom of the regulatory pile.

Power Driven Vessel Lights

Which Rules cover navigation lights?

Here is a list the COLREG rules defining the lights vessels must show. Part C of the Rules is the section covering navigation lights. As the posts build in this series, so this list will have links added to form a useful index.

  • Rule 20 Application
  • Rule 22 Visibility of lights
  • Rule 23 Power driven vessels underway
  • Rule 24 Towing and Pushing
  • Rule 25 Sailing Vessels Underway and vessels Under oars
  • Rule 26 Fishing Vessels
  • Regulation 27 Vessels Not Under Command or Restricted in Their Ability To Manoeuvre
  • Rule 28 Vessels constrained by their draft
  • Rule 29 Pilot Vessels
  • Rule 30 Anchored Vessels and Vessels aroun
  • Rule 31 Seaplanes

The Annexes

Much of the technical specifications of navigation lights is contained within ANNEX I.

  • ANNEX I-Positioning and technical details of lights and shapes
  • ANNEX II-Additional Signals for fishing vessels fishing in close proximity

What is contained within the Navigation light Rules?A Masthead Light

And here is a list of the contents of those Rules, and some additional rules from the rest of the COLREGS with navlight related topics.

Rule 1 Application

  • (C) Additional lights and shapes
  • (E) Vessels of special constuction or purpose

Part C lights and shapes

Rule 20 Application

  •  (a) Requirement to comply with  in all weathers.
  •  (b) Requirement to comply with at night.
  • (c) When to require with  part during the day
  •  (e) The lights  shall comply with the provisions of Annex I

Rule  21 DefinitionsPort Sidelight

  • (a) Masthead light
  • (b) Sidelights
  • (c) Sternlight
  • (d) Towing  light
  • (e) All -Round light
  • (f) Flashing light

Rule 22 Visibility of lights

  • (a) Vessels of 50 metres or more in length
  • (b) Vessels  of 12 metres or more in length but less than 50 metres in length
  • (c) Vessels of less than 12 metres in length
  • (d) Lights on inconspicuous towed vessels or objects

Rule 23 Power driven vessels underway

  • (a) What a power driven Vessel Underway must exhibit
  • (b) What an air cushion vessel should exhibit
  • (c) What a power driven vessel of less than 12 metres in length should exhibit

Rule 24 Towing and Pushing

  • (a) What a power driven vessel when towing must exhibitAll-round lights
  • (b) What a vessel pushing ahead as a composite unit shall exhibit
  • (c) What a vessel pushing ahead of towing alongside shall exhibit
  • (d) Requirement to comply with Rule 23(a}(ii) in addition
  • (e) What a vessel or object being towed should exhibit
  • (f) What a group of vessels being towed should exhibit
  • (g) What inconspicuous or partly submerged objects or vessels should exhibit.
  • (h) When a towed vessel cannot exhibit these lights
  • (i) What can be displayed by vessels towing a vessel in distress or need of assistance

Rule 25 Sailing Vessels Underway and vessels Under oars

  • (a) What a sailing vessel underway should exhibit
  • (b) What a sailing vessel of less than 20 metres in length
  • (c) Additional lights that may be shown by sailing vessels
  • (d) What sailing vessels of less than 7 metres in length and vessels under oars shall show

Rule 26 Fishing Vessels

  • (a) Requirement that a vessel engaged in fishing should comply with only this RuleFishing Vessel lights
  • (b) What a vessel engaged in trawling shall exhibit
  • (c) What a vessel engaged in fishing other then trawling shall exhibit
  • (d) When the additional signals in Annex II can be used
  • (e) What a vessel not engaged in fishing shall exhibit

Regulation 27 Vessels Not Under Command or Restricted in Their Ability To Manoeuvre

  • (a) What a vessel not under command shal exhibit
  • (b) What a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre shall exhibit
  • (c) What a towing vessel when restricted in her ability to manoeuvre should exhibit
  • (d) What a vessel engaged in dredging or underwater operations shall exhibit
  • (e) What a small vessel engaged in diving may exhibit
  • (f) What a vessel engaged in mine clearance shall exhibit
  • (g) The requirements for vessels less than 12 metres in length
  • (h) These lights do not mean distress

Rule 28 Vessels constrained by their draft

Rule 29 Pilot Vessels

  • (a) What a pilot vessel engaged in pilot duty shall exhibit
  • (b) What a pilot vessel not engaged in pilot duty shall exhibit

Rule 30 Anchored Vessels and Vessels around

  • (a) What a vessel at anchor shall exhibit
  • (b) What a vessel of less than 50 metres in length may exhibit when at anchor
  • (c) What a vessel of over a 100 metres in length shall exhibit in addition

Rule 31 Seaplanes

What lights a seaplane shall exhibit

Rule 36 Signals to attract Attention

Rule 38 Exemptions

The following expemtions are still in force:

  • The repositioning of lights as a result of conversion from Imperial to metric units and rounding off measurement figures
  • The repositioning of masthead lights on vessels of less than 150 meters in length, resulting from theprescriptions of Section 3(a) of Annex I
  •  The repositioning of all-round lights resulting from the prescription of Section 9(b) of Annex I

The Annexes

Navigation lights from the bulk of the  Annexes of the COLREGS. ANNEX I contains all the detail of what, where, and how the lights should be fitted.

ANNEX I

POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES

  • 1. Definition
  • 2. Vertical positioning and spacing of lights
  • 3. Horizontal positioning and spacing of lights
  • 4. Details of location of direction-indicating lights for fishing vessels, dredgers
  • and vessels engaged in underwater operations
  • 5. Screens for sidelights
  • 7. Colour specification of lights
  • 8. Intensity of lights
  • 9. Horizontal sectors
  • 10. Vertical sectors
  • 11. Intensity of non-electric lights
  • 12. Manoeuvring light
  • 13. High Speed Craft
  • 14. Approval

ANNEX II

Additional Signals for fishing vessels fishing in close proximity

  • 1. General
  • 2. Signals for trawlers
  • 3. Signals for purse seiners

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The maintenance of navigation equipment

Radars , radios and lights on ship's gantry mastSOLAS V Regulation 16-Maintenance of equipment.

On the Navregs  blog writing the front the exploration of SOLAS V continues . This time the focus is on maintenance.

What is the requirements for the maintenance of navigational equipment?

That adequate arrangements are in place to ensure that the performance of the equipment required by SOLAS Chapter V is maintained.

Note This will include ensuring that proper manuals enabling on-board maintenance are available and that that companies have ensured a comprehensive back-up service, including provision of both spares and maintenance engineers by manufacturers or their agents.

Can a vessel sail with defective navigational equipment?

Yes, where repair facilities are not readily available, provided suitable arrangements are made by the master to take the inoperative equipment or unavailable information into account in planning and executing a safe voyage to a port where repairs can take place. In such cases the vessel must obtain approval from their flag state. Approval to sail will not apply to cases when the defects are detected during a safety survey.

The decision to allow a vessel to sale with defective equipment  will depend on the equipment involved, the magnitude of the malfunction and it’s effect on the ship being able to complete the voyage safely.

Equipment manuals and IEC

IEC 60945, issued by the IEC states that equipment manuals must be:

  • Be written in English
  • Identify the category of the equipment or units to which they refer
  • in the case of equipment so designed that fault diagnosis and repair down to component level are practicable, provide full circuit diagrams, component layouts and a component parts list
  • In the case of equipment containing complex modules in which fault diagnosis and repair down to component level are not practicable, contain sufficient information to enable a defective complex module to be located, identified and replaced.

IEC is the international Electrotechnical Commission.

ISM and maintenance

ISM paragraph 5.10 contains the codes requirements for maintenance.

“5.10 Maintenance of the Ship and Equipment

5.10.1 The Company should establish procedures to ensure that the ship is maintained in conformity with the provisions of the relevant rules and regulations and with any additional requirements which may be established by the Company.

5.10.2 In meeting these requirements the Company should ensure that:
.1 inspections are held at appropriate intervals;
.2 any non-conformity is reported, with its possible cause, if known;
.3 appropriate corrective action is taken; and
.4 records of these activities are maintained”


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What standards are required for Navigational Bridge Equipment?

A ferry enclosed Navigation BridgeSOLAS-Regulation 18 – Approval, surveys and performance standards of navigational systems and equipment and voyage data recorder

This exploration of the safety of navigation section of SOLAS now looks at the performance standards required for ship’s bridge equipment. In addition to a quick look at the regulation 18 the post also provides a set of links to the related resolutions containing the standards.

What does Regulation 18 require?

That systems and equipment required to meet the requirements of regulations 19 and 20 shall be of a type approved by the Administration and  Systems and equipment installed on or after 1 July 2002 to perform the functional requirements of regulations 19 and 20 shall conform to appropriate performance standards not inferior to those adopted by the Organization.

What must you ensure if bridge equipment is installed of replaced?

That  the requirements of Regulation 18 are met.

UK MCA table of IMO performance standards

Bridge of a Fyffe ship

The IMO Standards

I have used the UK table of IMO performance standards list the resolutions and whenever possible linked across to the sources of the document. Some of these links are to IMO pages, others to National Authority web pages. 

General

  • IMO index of resolutions
  • A.694(17)– General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • A.813(19)-General requirements for Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

Intergration

Integrated Bridge Systems (IBS)

  • MSC.64 (67) Annex 1 -Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)– General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

 Integrated Navigation Systems (INS)

  • MSC.86 (70) Annex 3-Adoption of new and amended performance standards for Navigational equipment.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Direction

Compasses

Magnetic Compass

  • IMO A.382 (X)- Magnetic compasses carriage and performance standardsAn old Tug's bridge window
  • A.694(17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Gyro Compass

  • A.424 (XI)-Performance standards for gyro-compasses
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Gyro Compass- HSC

  • A.821 (19)Performance standards for gyro-compasses for high-speed craft
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Display of direction information

Gyro Compass Heading Repeater

  • A.424 (XI)-Performance standards for gyro-compasses
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Gyro Bearing Repeater

  • A.424 (XI)Performance standards for gyro-compasses.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Transmitting Heading Device (THD)

  • MSC.116(78)– Application of performance standards for Transmitting Heading Devices (THDs) to Marine Transmitting Magnetic Heading Devices (TMHDs)
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Transmitting Magnetic Heading Device (TMHD)

  • MSC.86 (70) ANNEX 2-Adoption of new and amended performance standards for Navigational equipment.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • SC.116(78)– Application of performance standards for Transmitting Heading Devices (THDs) to Marine Transmitting Magnetic Heading Devices (TMHDs)

Rate of Turn Indicator

  • A.526 (13)– Performance standards for rate of turn indicators
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids

Bridge wing of a ferry

Control

Automatic Pilots

  • A.342 (IX)-Recommendation on performance standards for automatic pilots.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Track Control Systems

  • MSC.74 (69) annex 2- Adoption of new and amended performance standards
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Automatic Pilots for HSC

  • A.822 (19)Performance standards for automatic steering aids (automatic pilots) for high-speed craft
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Distance

Speed and Distance Measuring Equipment (SDME)

  • A.478 (XII) Performance standards for devices to indicate speed an distance
  • A.824(19)-performance standards for devices to measure speed and distance
  • MSC.96(72)- Adoption of amendments to performance standards for devices to measure and indicate speed and distance

Echo Sounder

  • A.224 (VII) –Performance standards for Echo-Sounding equipment
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Rocky coastline in Cornwall

Position

Electronic charts

ECDIS Standard

  • A.817 (19) -Performance standards for Electronic Chart Display and information systems (ECDIS)
  • A.232(82)-Adoption of revised performance standards for Electronic Chart Display and information systems (ECDIS)
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Back up requirements

  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • MSC.64(67) annex 5- Adoption of new and amended performance standards.

RCDS mode of operation

  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • MSC.86(70) annex 4-Adoption of new and amended performance standards for Navigational equipment.

Electronic Navigation Systems

Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver (GNSS)GPS

  • A.819 (19)

Now

  • MSC.112(73)-Adoption of the revised performance standards for shipborne global positioning system (GPS) receiver equipment.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

GLONASS

  • MSC.53 (66)-Performance standards for shipborne GLONASS reciter equipment.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

DGPS / DGLONASS

  • MSC.64 (67) annex 2-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • MSC.114(73) -Adoption of the revised performance standards for shipborne DGPS and DGLONASS Maritime Radio Beacon Receiver equipment

Combined GPS/GLONASS

  • MSC.74 (69)-Adoption of new and amended performance standards
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Electronic Position Fixing Systems

Worldwide radio navigation system

  • A.815 (19)-Worldwide Navigation System.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Accuracy standards for navigation

  • A.529 (13)-Accuracy standards for Navigation
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Differential OMEGA

  • A.479 (XII) -Performance Standards for shipborne receivers for use with differential Omega.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

LORAN-C and CHAYKA

  • A.818 (19)-Performance standards for shipborne LORAN-C and chayka receivers
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Radars , radios and lights on ship's gantry mast

Detection

Radar

Consolidated performance standards for all new Radar Equipment (1/7/2008 and after)

  • MSC.192(79) -Adoption of the revised performance standards for Radar Equipment

Radar Equipment

Before 01/09/1984

  • A.222 (VII) -Performance standards for Radar Navigational Equipment
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Between 01/09/1984 and 31/12/1998

  • A.477 (XII)-Performance standards for Radar Equipment
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

On or after 01/01/1999

  • MSC.64(67) Annex 4-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.

Radar Equipment for HSC

  • A.820 (19)– Performance standards for navigational equipment for high speed craft.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Radar- Symbols for Controls

  • A.278 (VIII)Supplement on performance standards for navigational radar equipment
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Plotting

Automatic Radar Plotting Aid (ARPA)

  • A.422 (XI)-Performance standards for Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA)
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Electronic Plotting Aid (EPA)

  • MSC.64 (67) Annex 4-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Automatic Tracking Aid ATA

  • MSC.64 (67) Annex 4-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Enhancing

Radar Reflector

  • A.384 (X)-Performance standards for Radar Reflectors
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • MSC.164(78)-Revised performance standards for Radar Reflectors

Radar Beacons & Transponders

  • A.615 (15)Radar beacons and transponders
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

SARTS

  • A.802 (19)-Performance standards for Survival Craft Radar Transponders for use in Search a Rescue operations
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids

Main mast

Awareness

Automatic Identification System (AIS)

MSC.74 (69) annex 3

A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Lookout

Sound Reception System

  • MSC.86 (70)-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Night Vision Equipment

  • MSC.94 (72)-Performance standards for night vision equipment for High-Speed Craft (HSC)
  • A.694-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Signalling Lamps

  • MSC.95 (72)-Performance standards for daylight signalling lamps

Recording

Voyage Data Recorder (VDR)

  • A.861 (20)-Performance standards for Shipborne Voyage Data Recorders (VDRs)
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Simplified Voyage Data Recorder (S-VDR)

  • MSC.163(78)-Performance standards for Shipborne Simplified Voyage Data Recorders (VDRs)

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SOLAS V and Steering Gear

Stern of Isle of Wight Ferry Leaving Portsmouth

Another Regulation of SOLAS V-Safety of Navigation-explored

And so the wader through SOLAS V continues with its equipment related theme. This time its the steering gear, and in particular. the tests an Officer of the Watch must conduct.

Regulation 26-Steering gear- Testing and Drills

This Regulation within SOLAS V contains the requirements for the pre-sailing tests of steering gear tests.

Click here for the UK MCA guidance on Regulation 26>

When should the pre-departure testing of steering gear be conducted?

It should be tested within 12 hours before departure

What equipment should include within the steering gear testing procedure?

  • The main steering gear
  • The auxiliary steering gear
  • The remote steering gear control systems
  • The steering positions located on the navigation bridge
  • The emergency power supply
  • The rudder angle indicators in relation to the actual position of the rudder
  • The remote steering gear control system power failure alarms
  • The steering gear power unit failure alarms
  • The automatic isolating arrangements and other automatic equipment

What tests and checks should be included in the steering gear testing procedures?

  • The full movement of the rudder according to the required capabilities of the steering gear
  • A visual inspection for the steering gear and its connecting linkage
  • The operation of the means of communication between the navigation bridge and steering gear compartment

Movement-Visual-Communications

The flag state may waive the requirements to carry out the checks and tests for ships which regularly engage on short voyages. Such ships shall carry out these checks and tests at least once every week.

How often should the emergency steering gear be tested?

Emergency steering drills shall take place at least once every three months.

These drills shall include

  • Direct control within the steering gear compartment
  • The communications procedure with the navigation bridge
  • Where applicable, the operation of alternative power supplies

The date upon which the checks and tests are carried out and the date and details of emergency steering drills carried shall be recorded.

What should be displayed regarding the steering gear change over procedures?

A simple operating instructions with a block diagram showing the change-over procedures for remote steering gear control systems. This shall be permanently displayed on the navigation bridge and in the steering compartment.

Note: All ships’ officers concerned with the operation and/or maintenance of steering gear shall be familiar with the operation of the steering systems fitted on the ship and with the procedures for changing from one system to another.

Car ferry manouvering

In addition to the testing requirements, SOLAS V contains a short regulation requiring the use of more than one steering gear.

SOLAS V Regulation 25-Operation of Steering Gear

When should more than one steering gear be used?

In areas where navigation demands special caution,  when steering gear units are capable of simultaneous operation.

Click here for MCA guidance on Regulation 25>

 

A diversion beyond SOLAS V into the Construction section of the convention gives the performance standards required when testing the steering gear.

SOLAS II-1 Regulation 29-Steering Gear

How quick should a rudder turn?

At maximum ahead service speed the rudder must be capable of putting the rudder over:

From 35° on one side to 35° on the other side

and

From 35° on either side to 30° on the other side in not more than 28 seconds.

The auxiliary steering gear shall be of adequate strength and capable of steering the ship at navigable speed and be capable of putting the rudder over from 15° on one side to 15° on the other side in not more than 60 seconds at one half of the maximum ahead service speed or 7 knots, whichever is the greater.

Other online sources of information

 


A New Really Handy Guide has just been published

Cover of the Really handy Guide to Ship Certification, part 3. A Really Handy Guide to Ship Certification

Part 3

Keeping Vessels safe

 

The third in the series of revision guides on Ship certification is now available for the Kindle Platform.  SOLAS safety certification and Security are the themes this time, with a bit of HSSC thrown in for good measures.

Click here to see on Amazon>

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Maritime Conventions and Codes on Amazon

wp-1481562626266.jpgThroughout the recent posts on this blog have been references to various International Maritime Conventions and Codes. Now that all the key certificates have been covered, it is probably a good time to provide a quick reference to where to purchase the source publications.

Where to find the publications on Amazon

When I started building this post my intention was to give links to each book. Unfortunately, I was soon thwarted by the high range in prices being offered on line. In order to avoid providing links towards overpriced I have instead given some search links that will allow a quick check of what is currently being offered on-line.

Before buying through Amazon then it is recommended to check the suppliers and prices IMOfrom the IMO, at their publication page.

The International Conventions

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Codes

Other Codes and guidance

 

 

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The ISPS Code- A Handy Summary

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Following on from the last post on the International Ship Security Certificate, this post has a quick look at its associated code. 

The International Code for the Security of Ships and Port Facilities

Following terrorists attacks of  11th September 2001 the IMO agreed to the development of new measures relating to the security of ships and of port facilities; out of this agreement came the ISPS code

What makes the ISPS code mandatory?

SOLAS Chapter XI-2 , Special measures to Enhance Maritime Security

Regulation 4 Requirements for Companies and Ships

“2 Ships shall comply with the relevant requirements of this chapter and of part A of the ISPS Code, taking into account the guidance given in part B of the ISPS Code, and such compliance shall be verified and certified as provided for in part A of the ISPS Code…..”

This Code applies to the following ships on international voyages:

  • Passenger ships, including high-speed passenger craft;
  • Cargo ships, including high-speed craft, of 500 gross tonnage and upwards
  • Mobile offshore drilling units
  • Port facilities serving such ships engaged on international voyages

What does SOLAS Say about ship security and the Master’s discretion?

Regulation 8

“1 The master shall not be constrained by the Company, the charterer or any other person from taking or executing any decision which, in the professional judgement of the master, is necessary to maintain the safety and security of the ship. This includes denial of access to persons (except those identified as duly authorized by a Contracting Government) or their effects and refusal to load cargo, including containers or other closed cargo transport units.”

Contents of the ISPS code

This list of sections within the code give in an indication of the range of its requirements. The contents of sections 7, 8, 9,10, 12 and 14 are the most applicable to ships and require a Ship Security Assessment, Ship Security Plan and Ship Security officer to be in place.

  • 1 General
  • 2 Definitions
  • 3 Application
  • 4  Responsibilities of Contracting Governments
  • 5 Deceleration of Security
  • 6 Obligations of the Company
  • 7 Ship Security
  • 8 Ship Security Assessment
  • 9 Ship Security Plan
  • 10 Records
  • 11 Company Security Officer
  • 12 Ship Security Officer
  • 13 Training, Drills and exercises on Ship Security
  • 14 Port Facility Security
  • 15 Port Facility Security assessment
  • 16 Port Facility Security Plan
  • 17 Port Facility Security officer
  • 18  Training, Drills and exercises on Port Facility Security

What is covered by the ship Security Assessment (SSA) ?

  • Physical security
  • Structural integrity
  • Personnel protection systems
  • Procedural policies
  • Radio and telecommunication systems, including computer systems and networks
  • Other areas that may, if damaged or used for illicit observation, pose a risk to
    persons, property, or operations on board the ship or within a port facility

What is the Ship Security Plan (SSP)?

Ship security plan means a plan developed to ensure the application of measures on board the ship designed to protect persons on board, cargo, cargo transport units, ship’s stores or the ship from the risks of a security incident.” ISPS Code definitions

Contents of the plan

  • The organizational structure of security for the ship
  • The ship’s relationships with the Company, port facilities, other ships and relevant authorities with security responsibility
  • The communication systems to allow effective continuous communication
    within the ship and between the ship and others, including port facilities
  • The basic security measures for security level 1 that will always be in place
  • The additional security measures that will allow the ship to progress without
    delay to security level 2 and, when necessary, to security level 3
  • Procedures for regular review, or audit, of the SSP and for its amendment in response to experience or changing circumstances
  • The reporting procedures to the appropriate Contracting Governments contact points

What are the Security Levels?

These are set by Governments based on the security threat. Each threat level will have a corresponding series of security measures within the Ship and Port Security plans.

  • Security level 1 means the level for which minimum appropriate protective
    security measures shall be maintained at all times.
  • Security level 2 means the level for which appropriate additional protective
    security measures shall be maintained for a period of time as a result of
    heightened risk of a security incident.
  • Security level 3 means the level for which further specific protective security
    measures shall be maintained for a limited period of time when a security incident
    is probable or imminent, although it may not be possible to identify the specific
    target.

What nominated personal are required by ISPS?

The Company Security Officer (CSO) is responsible for ensuring that a Ship Security
Assessment (SSA) is carried out for each of the ships in the Company’s fleet.

Ship Security Officer (SSO) means the person on board the ship, accountable to the
master, designated by the Company as responsible for the security of the ship.

Port Facility Security Officer (PFSO)means the person designated as responsible for the development, implementation, revision and maintenance of the port facility
security plan and for liaison with the ship security officers and company security
officers.


 

Some Related Revision Guides

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Enclosed spaces- where to find information

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Enclosed, Confined and Dangerous Spaces

A quick diversion away from certification this post to pass on some useful links for information related to entry into enclosed spaces.

This very important safety topic is confused by the variation in names adopted to describe such spaced. I have therefore included the name used in each reference with the appropriate definition.

Resolution A.1050(27) REVISED RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ENTERING ENCLOSED SPACES ABOARD SHIPS

“2.1 Enclosed space means a space which has any of the following characteristics: .

1 limited openings for entry and exit;

.2 inadequate ventilation; and

.3 is not designed for continuous worker occupancy,

and includes, but is not limited to, cargo spaces, double bottoms, fuel tanks, ballast tanks, cargo pump-rooms, cargo compressor rooms, cofferdams, chain lockers, void spaces, duct keels, inter-barrier spaces, boilers, engine crankcases, engine scavenge air receivers, sewage tanks, and adjacent connected spaces. This list is not exhaustive and a list should be produced on a ship-by-ship basis to identify enclosed spaces.”

UK COSWOP chapter 15COSWOP

“15.1.1 An enclosed space is one that:has limited openings for entry and exit; has inadequate ventilation; and  is not designed for continuous worker occupation.”

UK SI 1988 No. 1638 – The Merchant Shipping (Entry into Dangerous Spaces) Regulations

“dangerous space” means any enclosed or confined space in which it is foreseeable that the atmosphere may at some stage contain toxic or flammable gases or vapours, or be deficient in oxygen, to the extent that it may endanger the life or health of any person entering that space;

UK shore based guidelines and regulations

UK HSE confined space webpageHSE

“A confined space is a place which is substantially enclosed (though not always entirely), and where serious injury can occur from hazardous substances or conditions within the space or nearby (e.g. lack of oxygen).”

UK confined space regulations 1997Approved code practice

UK approved code of practice


Ship certification exploring will continue in the next post.

For a find a copy of COSWOP on Amazon click below.

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