Tag Archives: Navigation

What are the Carriage requirements for shippborne Navigation systems and equipment?

Navsregs>SOLAS>SOLAS V>Navigation Equipment Carriage Requirements

 A Quick Guide to SOLAS V Regulations 19

A ferry enclosed Navigation Bridge

This series of posts on SOLAS V continues with a quick guide on the requirements for the carriage of Navigation equipment. 

General

What regulation covers the Carriage requirements for ship’s navigation systems?

SOLAS V, Regulation 19- Carriage requirements for shipborne navigational systems and equipment.

What equipment is included within the regulation?

Click here to view the Regulation on the UK MCA website>

What ships need to comply with SOLAS V?

  •  New ships (1 July 2002) must comply fully with the requirements of this regulation.
  •  Existing ships may continue to comply with the regulations in force before 1 July 2002 except that they must be fitted with a GNSS receiver (which replaces the requirement for a RDF receiver) and AIS in accordance with a specified timetable

Click here for a table on the UK MCA website of carriage requirements>

Direction and SpeedEnclosed bridge wing

Compasses

What is the requirement to carry a Magnetic compass?

All ships irrespective of size shall have:

  • A properly adjusted standard magnetic compass or other means, independent of any power supply to determine the ship’s heading and display the reading at the main steering position
  • A pelorus or compass bearing device, or other means, independent of any power supply to take bearings over an arc of the horizon of 360°
  • Means of correcting heading and bearings to true at all times

All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition be fitted with:

  • A spare magnetic compass interchangeable with the magnetic compass, or other means to perform the function referred to by replacement or duplicate equipment

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition:

  • A properly adjusted transmitting heading device, or other means to transmit heading information for input to specified equipment

Ferry bridge from astern

What are the requirements to carry a Gyro Compass?

All ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A gyro compass, or other means, to determine and display their heading by shipborne non-magnetic means, being clearly readable by the helmsman at the main steering position. These means shall also transmit heading information for input to specified equipment.
  • A  gyro compass heading repeater, or other means, to supply heading information visually at the emergency steering position if provided
  • A gyro compass bearing repeater, or other means, to take bearings, over an arc of the horizon of 360º, using the gyro compass or other means. However ships less than 1,600 gross tonnage shall be fitted with such means as far as possible

Heading Control

What is the requirement for a heading or track control systems?BridgeandMoon

All ships of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A heading or track control system, or other means, to automatically control and keep to a heading and/or straight track

All ships of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall have:

  • A rate of turn indicator, or other means, to determine and display the rate of turn

Speed

What is the requirement to carry speed monitoring equipment?

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and all passenger ships:

  • Speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance through the water

All ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards:

  • Rudder, propeller, thrust, pitch and operational mode indicators, or other means to determine and display rudder angle, propeller revolutions, the force and direction of thrust and, if applicable, the force and direction of lateral thrust and the pitch and operational mode, all to be readable from the conning position

All ships of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards have:

Condor Ferry leaving Portsmouth

  • A speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance over the ground in the forward and athwartships direction

Navigation

Charts and publications

What is the requirement for a ship to carry navigational Charts?

Vessels of any size shall carry:

  • Nautical charts and nautical publications to plan and display the ship’s route for the intended voyage and to plot and monitor positions throughout the voyage.
  • An electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) is also accepted as meeting the chart carriage requirements
  • A back-up arrangement  if this function is partly or fully fulfilled by electronic means

An appropriate folio of paper nautical charts may be used as a back-up arrangement for ECDIS.

What is the requirement to carry ECDIS?

Ships engaged on international voyages shall be fitted with an Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) as follows:

Ships built since 2012

  •  Passenger ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July Commodore Clipper's bidge2012
  • Tankers of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2012
    Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2013
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 10,000 gross tonnage constructed on or after 1 July 2014
  • Passenger ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2012, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2014

Ships built prior to 2012

  • Tankers of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2012, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2015
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2013, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2016
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 20,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 50,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1 July 2013, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2017
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 20,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1 July 2013, not alter than the first survey on or after 1 July 2018

Click here for a copy of resolution A.817(19)>

Position Fixing

What position fixing must be carried?

  • A receiver for a global navigation satellite system or a terrestrial radio navigationMain mast system, or other means, suitable for use at all times throughout the intended voyage to establish and update the ship’s position by automatic means

What the requirement to carry an Echo Sounder?

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards:

  • An echo sounding device, or other electronic means, to measure and display the available depth of water

Collision Avoidance

Radar

What radar equipment must a ship carry?

If less than 150 gross tonnage and if practicable:

  • A radar reflector or other means, to enable detection by ships navigating by radar at both 9 and 3 GHZ

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships:

  • A 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of radar transponders and of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance
  • An electronic plotting aid, or other means, to plot electronically the range and bearing of targets to determine collision risk

All ships of 3000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A 3 GHz radar or where considered appropriate by the Administration a second 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance
  • A second automatic tracking aid, or other means to plot automatically the range
  • and bearing of other targets to determine collision risk

All ships of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • An automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA)  or other means, to plot automatically the range and bearing of at least 20 other targets, connected to a device to indicate speed and distance through the water, to determine collision risks and simulate a trial manoeuvre

CommunicationsSunset through a bridge window

Internal

What is the requirement for internal communications to steering positions?

  • A telephone, or other means, to communicate heading information to the emergency steering position, if provided

External

What must be fitted to an enclosed bridge?

  • When the ship’s bridge is totally enclosed and unless the Administration determines otherwise, a sound reception system, or other means, to enable the officer in charge of the navigational watch to hear sound signals and determine their direction

What  visual means of communication must be carried?

All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size:

  • A daylight signalling lamp, or other means to communicate by light during day and night using an energy source of electrical power not solely dependent upon the ship’s power supply

AIS

What ships must carry an AIS?Geared general cargo ship

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international voyages and cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards not engaged on international voyages and passenger ships irrespective of size shall be fitted with an automatic identification

What functions must an AIS provide?

  • Provide automatically to appropriately equipped shore stations, other ships and aircraft information, including the ship’s identity, type, position, course, speed, navigational status and other safety-related information
  • Receive automatically such information from similarly fitted ships;
  • Monitor and track ships
  • Exchange data with shore-based facilities

When Must AIS be used?

Ships fitted with AIS shall maintain AIS in operation at all times except where international agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of navigational information.

Click for UK MCA guidance on the use of AIS>

Click for IMO A 917(22) Guidelines for use of AIS

Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm System (BNAWS)

Which ships are required to carry a BNAWS?

  • All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and all passenger ship

When must a BNAWS be used?

The bridge navigational watch alarm system shall be in operation whenever the ship is underway at sea.

Click here for IACS requirements concerning navigation>

Click to search for the Bridge Procedures Guide on Amazon>


Click for more about the Really Handy BooksReally Handy Books

Revision Guides for Mariners

Handy Books at Handy Prices produced for the Kindle format.

These guides by Navsbooks cover

  • COLREGS
  • IALA
  • ISM code
  • Safe Seamanship
  • Ship certification

Click here to learn more>

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Voyage data recorder systems-Certificate of Compliance

wpid-wp-1442585512060.jpegVDR Certificate of Compliance

A Handy Revision Guide

Another equipment related certificate, this time to the maritime equivalent to an aircraft’s ‘Black box’. 

Why is the Certificate of Compliance required?

SOLAS Chapter V Regulation 18

“The voyage data recorder system, including all sensors, shall be subjected to an annual performance test. The test shall be conducted by an approved testing or servicing facility to verify the accuracy, duration and recoverability of the recorded data. In addition, tests and inspections shall be conducted to determine the serviceability of all protective enclosures and devices fitted to aid location. A copy of the certificate of compliance issued by the testing facility, stating the date of compliance and the applicable performance standards, shall be retained on board the ship.”

Click here for Chapter V on the UK MCA website>

Which ships are required to carry a VDR or S-DVR?

SOLAS Chapter V Safety of Navigation Regulation 20- Voyage Data Recordersvdrimo

Click here for the IMO website on VDRs>

VDR

  • Passenger ships
  • Ships, other than passenger ships, of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2002

S-VDR

Cargo ships of 3,000 gross tonnage and upward when engaged on international voyages, shall be fitted with a VDR which may be a simplified voyage data recorder

When must the performance test be carried out?

Annually within the following windows:

The maximum period between checks of the VDR is 15 months for Passenger vessels and 18 months for Cargo vessels.

What is contained on the certificate?vdrform

Reference  IMO MSC.1/Circ.1222

Ship’s Details

  • Ship’s Name
  • Flag
  • IMO Number
  • Date Keel laid
  • Gross Tonnage

Voyage Data Recorder Details

  • Manufacturer
  • Modelvdr2
  • System Serial Number
  • Software version number
  • Date Fitted

Inspection Details

  • Name person conducting testing
  • Company
  • Inspection Date
  • Inspection Location
    • Pre-existing Alarms
    • Power Supply Alarm Check
    • Reserve Power Source Check
    • Reserve Power Source shut down Check
    • Battery Expiry Dates
    • Acoustic Beacon Test
    • Physical Condition of Equipment Inspect Equipment and Record Condition
    • Interfaces: Operation and recording
    • Change or Repair of Sensors

Manufacturer’s Analysis

Observations and additional manufacturer’s requirements

What is a S-VDR?

A Simplified Voyage Data Recorder.This  is not required to store the same level of detailed data as a standard VDR, but nonetheless should maintain a store, in a secure and retrievable form, of information concerning the position, movement, physical status, command and control of a vessel over the period leading up to and following an incident

Items to be record on Voyage Data Recorder

Reference IMO Performance Standard (Res. A.861(20))

VDR

  • Date & time
  • Ship’s position
  • Speed (through water or over ground)
  • Heading
  • Bridge Audio
  • Comms audioimg_20160915_132855_hdr_kindlephoto-117081169.jpg
  • Radar data- post display selection
  •  Water depth
  •  Main alarms
  •  Rudder order & response
  • Engine order & response
  • Telegraphs, controls and thrusters
  •  Hull openings status
  •  Watertight & fire door status
  •  Acceleration & hull stresses- when fitted
  •  Wind speed & direction-when fitted

S-VDR

  • Date and time
  • Ship’s position m
  • Speed (Through the water or over the ground)
  •  Heading
  •  Bridge Audio
  • Communications audio  VHF communications
  • Radar data
  • AIS Data  AIS to be recorded if it is impossible to record radar data. If radar is recorded AIS may be recorded as an additional source of information

Some VDR links


GMDSS Users Handbook on Amazon

This book by Denise Bréhaut is is available in both paperback and Kindle editions, with a good discount for the electronic edition.  It has 4* reviews on Amazon , with some stating it is perfect accompaniment to the GMDSS qualifications. There have been some reviews claiming that the book is in need of an update, so have a look at the reviews, and judge which elements of the system you may have to top up your reading  with.  Click here to see the book on Amazon>

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How to learn the Collision Regulations

Navsregs>COLREGS>How to learn

Many Deck Cadets consider their greatest obstacle to gaining that precious ticket is learning the Collision Regulations.

I have put this  post together to help take the fear away from the ‘Learning’ part of the process, with some suggestions on how to transfer those words into the memory, ready to be thrown back out in a confident form to an examiner. Give them a go, a couple may work for you…


When learning the Colregs the most important method to use is that their is no single method. Not only are we all different in our learning styles, but we soon become stale when cramming for exams. What is needed is a selection of revision tools, a selection that provides new ways forward when a saturation point has been reached. So, here is my toolbox of Colreg revision methods

Walk and Talk
My favourite. Combines revision with some fresh air, exercise and a chance for a change in scenery.

Take the Rulwpid-157765645208.jpges on a walk, and recite out aloud as you go. Don’t be frightened to repeat the same sentence over and over until it is engrained. Do not be tempted to whisper, it is the confident speaking allowed that locks the words into the brain, and allows the mouth to be trained to only come out with the right answer.

Choice of route plays an important role, after all, there are some places that being seen talking loudly to yourself may not be appreciated, or at the least will gain you a wide berth.

The link between landscape and memory will help hugely, places, words and sequences becoming linked.

Stickers everywhere
A method best left for after you have identified the problem cases. Write out the Rules that are victimising you and stick them up in strategic locations that you pass every day. Back of doors are commonly used, and as are inside of cupboard doors. Every time you use the door, read the Rule. Do not be tempted to wallpaper your flat with this method though, the landlord will not be happy, and too many words will not sink in.

Highlights
Simple and effective. Work through your pocket book of rules highlighting the key words of each rule. The ones needed to make the Rule make sense. Then run through the book using another colour to highlight those stubborn words that cause you problems. Be selective though, a book awash with neon yellow will not work.

Write write write
Access to a copious supply of scrap paper will assist greatly for this.

Copy the Rule from the book several times, cover the book, then attempt to write it again from memory. This is a method that demands honesty. Do not cheat, read your answer and be a critical self marker. If you are studying for a written exam you must include this method. It is your hand the needs to know the rule, not the mouth.

Key words only
A possible follow on follow from the highlight method. Write the Rules with only the key words, maybe in a pocket book or on a a card. Then using this as a crib, practice reciting each Rule by filling the gaps.GormleyHead

Letters only method
Write only the initial letter of each word only. Then use this to recite the Rule. For example Rule 5 Evsaatmaplbsahawabamattpcac.

Writing by letters only
A great compromise between the power of writing the Rule out, and the time it takes to write each word in full. Write down the first letter in the head whilst speaking the Rule out, or saying it in the head.

Model ships, model seas method
This is where it becomes fun. Use some model ships to set up shipping situations and talk through the relevant rules. The big advantage of this method is that it replicates the examination room. There is no need to buy expensive teaching models, just pop down to a cheap toy shop, or use pencils.

Group method
This is a must, if possible. Work together as a group asking each other questions, then be critical on the answers. I recommend a relaxed informal setting for this, away from the normal workplace.

Into depth method
Time to dig into the books. Once a good knowledge of the Rules has been gained its a good time to start digging deeper. Approaching the Rules from another direction will keep the interest going. My Amazon store contains some suggestions.

So, hopefully this list has given a good range of methods to choose from. If you have any other favourites please feel free share them with a comment to this post. 

For some Really Handy Kindle books to learn the Collision Regulations Click here

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AIS and ECDIS

The latest MAIB report has some good lessons on the over reliance on AIS and ECDIS.

Click here to view the report.

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A Rule 5 failure, yet again.

Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look out by sight and hearing as well as all available means appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and risk of collision.


Click here to browse through my COLREG books on Amazon.

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Really Handy Books to Learn the Collision Regulations

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The objective of the Really Handy Publications is to bring navigation text books into the hands of those that need it, at the cost they can afford. These are text  books written specifically for the Kindle-  Handy Books at Handy prices. 

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A Really Handy Book to learn the collision regulations

This Really Handy book on the collision regulations will enable you to learn the International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea, wherever you are, and whatever you are doing. Really Handy books are designed to be used whenever you have a spare few minutes, on the train, waiting in queues, even walking the dog.

The book will lead you on a journey of questions, answers and comments through the regulations in a logical one order will enable you learn and remember the rules. It is not an in depth legal text book, that is left for other publications, nor is it full of colourful light pictures, that is best left for traditional books. However, this is book you require if you need to confidently know the words of the International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea.

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When ships meet-A Really Handy Book to revise the Collision Regulations

The second in the series of books written to accompany The>Really Handy Book to Learn the Collision Regulations. This kindle publication is based on the three basic power driven traffic situations, using a series of questions and answers to revise the related regulations.

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Shapes and a bit more. A Really Handy book to revise the Collision Regulations

This book has been written to accompany the Really Handy Book to learn the collision regulations. It uses a series of questions and answers to revise the rules on shapes, and some of the other fundamental rules.

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Rule 19 and a bit more-A Really Handy Book to revise the Collision Regulations

The third in the series of books written to accompany the Really Handy Book to Learn the Collision Regulations. This latest publication is based the restricted visibility rule, but expands its questions and answers to include many of the other collision regulations

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IALA Buoyage- A Really Handy Book to learn the system

The popular “Really Handy Series” of Kindle books has now been extended to include a publication for those wishing to learn and revise the IALA buoyage system. The book uses a mixtures of facts, pictures, questions and “a bit more”  to lead its reader through a logical and structured course of study….and at a Really Handy price.

To buy the books on line, or download the kindle publications then visit my Amazon store to browse through my books.

Click here to visit my Amazon authors page

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