Guidelines for Navigational Bridge design

A ships wheel House and bridge wingWhat does MSC Circ 982 cover?

A handy guide

The last post covered the navigation bridge design principles as
required by SOLAS V; this post goes into more detail into how these principles are applied.



MSC Circ 982 contains guidelines on ergonomic criterial for bridge equipment and layyout. These guidelines support Regulation 15 of SOLAS chapter V. The
guidelines are designed to support watchkeeping by a user-centered design of the bridge layout and its equipment. This  post gives an overview of the scope of the guidelines, an overview that will assist in identifying what elements of a bridge are included.

What are the elements of navigation bridge design covered in MSC/Circ 982?

Click here for a copy of MSC Circ 982>

What are the navigation bridge workstations?

A workstation is combination of all job related items for certain tasks; this
includes devices equipment and furnitiure.

  • Navigating and manoeuvring– The main workstation for
    shiphandling
  • Monitoring-The position from which equipment and
    environment can be observed
  • Manual steering-Helmsman’s position
  • Docking-Bridge wings
  • Planning and documentation-Postion used for route
    planning, fixing and documention
  • Saftey-Workstation for monitering safety systems
  • Communications– Workstation for operating GMDSS

Appendix 2 of MSC 982 conatains lists of equipment that should be at each
workstation.

What are the factors regarding bridge layout?

These are the factors that determine where all the key items should be placed
on a bridge.

  • Sight– Field of vision, blind sectors,windows,
    suncreens
  • Arrangement-Bridge dimensions, view of the deck, window
    access, workstation position, communications
  • Accessibility and movement– clear routes, passageway
    dimensions

Some of these factors play an important role in mantaining a lookout (COLREG
Rule 5), and therefore will be looked at in a bit more detail in another post.

What are the elements covered in the work
enviroment?

These are factors that can influence the quality of bridge watchkeeping.

  • Climate-Temprature, humidity
  • Ventilation and Air-conditioning– Air disharges, air
    velcities
  • Noise and Acoustics– levels of noise
  • Vibration-Levels of vibration
  • Illumination and Lighting-Level of lighting, dark
    adaptation, contrast, adjustability, glare, reflection
  • Occupational Safety-non-slip, sharp edges, hand rails,
    safety equipment marking

Bridge of a Fyffe ship

What does MSC cover regarding the workstation
Layout?

Without such guidelines the layout of workstations can be chaotic, inconsistent
and difficult to use.

  • Consoles-Area, viewing angles, heights, leg room, chart
    table dimensions, chair design
  • Devices,Control and Display Integration– Logical
    arrangement, consistency, locations, high priority displays
  • Arrangement and Grouping of Controls-Pacement, location
    of primary controls, consitency, spacing
  • Display Arrangement-Field of view, viewing area
  • Labelling of Controls and Displays-Functional
    labelling, terminology
  • Lighting of Devices-Dimming,



What guidelines are contained regarding alarms?

  • Alarm Management– Alarm acknowledgement, fire and
    emergency alarms, power failure, alarm status, testing, presentation, modes
  • Visual Alarms-Discrimination, presentation, flash rate,
    night vision
  • Audible Alarms– Use of audible alarms, sound characteristic, sound
    pressure, frequency

What do the guidelines cover regarding Input devices?

  • Movement of Controls- Direction of control
  • Corresponding movements-Consistent with related
    movement
  • Return to Navigation monitering mode-Single operator
    action only to revert from planning mode
  • Minimal User Actions– Actions used to be simlple,
    minimum number of actions required
  • Feedback– Visual, auditory oe mechanical feedback
    provided to indicate imput
  • Operation of controls– Easy to identify and operate
  • Accessibility– Most important/frequently used functions
    easily visible and accessible
  • Operation of controls for Important functions- Require
    only single action
  • Assignment of controls of Important functions-Should be
    assigned to only one functionn
  • Accidental input-Designed to prevent accidental
    manipulation

Bridge wing of a ferry

What topics are covered regarding Information
Display?

  • General Display Requirements-Lack of ambiguity, use of
    digital displays, updating information, information duration, simplicity,
    uncluttered displays, important information, graphic display, scale,
    distance judgement
  • Arrangement of Visual Information-Screen organization,
    grouping of information, group demarcation, consistency
  • Visual Display Units (VDU)-Night vision, dat and night
    legibility, background colour, resolution, contrast, luminance, flicker,
    continuity, linearity
  • Coding and Highlighting-Highlighting selected data,
    flash coding for alarms, colour discrimination, colour difference, standard
    shapes
  • Display Elements-Font, abberviations, units of
    measurement, icons, size of symbols and icons, highlighting, scaling
    intervals, scale expansion, grid displays

What does the guidelines on Interactive Control
cover?

  • General User Input Guidelines-Consitent procedures,
    standard procedures, consistent wording, unnessary information entry,
    available options
  • User Input Formats-Logical order, consistent menu
    design, minimal steps in meny selection, return to high level menus, return
    to general menu, menu titles, on/off items, form filling entry
  • System Operational Information-system status, mode,
    status of sensors, planned and actual data, position information sources,
    simulated operations
  • System Response-standard display location, familar
    wording, periodic feedback, warnings, error messages, on-line guidance
  • Prevention/Detection/Correction of Errors– Protection
    of data loss, segregating real and simulated data

Further Information Sources

Some of the factors mentioned in the post have significance to officer of the watches, and those factors I will explore in the next posting.

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SOLAS V and Navigational Bridge Design

Container Ship Bridge at Portsmouth

A Handy Summary

This series of posts on SOLAS V, Safety of navigation now explores a group of regulations concerned with the navigational bridge. 

What Regulation covers Navigational Bridge Design?

SOLAS Regulation 15 – ‘Principles Relating to Bridge Design, Design and Arrangement of Navigational Systems and Equipment and Bridge Procedures.‘ The principles in this Regulation must be taken into account when complying with the following SOLAS regulations:

  • 19-Carriage requirements for shipborne navigational systems and equipment
  • 22-Navigation bridge visibility
  • 24-Use of heading and/or track control systems
  • 25-Operation of main source of electrical power and steering gear
  • 27-Nautical charts and nautical publications
  • 28-Records of navigational activities and daily reporting

These regulations will be covered in later posts.

What are the principles of Navigational Bridge Design?

Bridge of a Fyffe ship

Bridge design must:

Appraisal-Facilitate the tasks to be performed by the bridge team and the pilot in making full appraisal of the situation and in navigating the ship safely under all  conditions.

Bridge Resources-Promote effective and safe bridge resource management.

Information access-Enable the bridge team and the pilot to have convenient and continuous access to essential information.

Information presentation-Present information in a clear and unambiguous manner, using standardized symbols for controls and displays.

Status indication-Indicate the operational status of automated functions and integrated components and systems.

Decision making-Allow for expeditious, continuous and effective information processing and decision-making by the bridge team and the pilot.

Distractions-Prevent or minimize excessive or unnecessary work and any conditions or distractions on the bridge which may cause fatigue or interfere with the vigilance of the bridge team and the pilot.

Human error-Minimize the risk of human error and detecting such error, if it occurs, through monitoring and alarm systems, in time for the bridge team and the pilot to take appropriate action.

Click here for the UK MCA guidance on Regulation 15, and the text of the regulation> 

Rule 5 of the Collision Regulations

These design principles support the most important rule in the COLREGS, Rule 5

“Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight an

Click to view this Handy Revision Guide for Kindle on Amazon

d hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and or the risk of collision.”

Where to look for more detailed information

The broad principles of Regulation 15 will be expanded with some practical detail in tne next post when I dig into Circular 982.


Further Reading

To find copies of the Bridge Procedures Guide on Amazon click here>

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The Pilot ladders and accommodation The Pilot ladder-Accommodation ladder combination

Pilot boat bowA handy revision guide to pilot boarding specifications

This series of posts based on SOLAS V continues to explore some of the details behind Regulation 23, Pilot Transfer arrangements. This time exploring the specifications within Resolution A.1045(27) covering combined accommodation ladder/Pilot ladder arrangements.

Why would a combined arrangement be required?

In accordance with SOLAS V an accommodation ladder shall be used in conjunction with the pilot ladder, or other equally safe and convenient means, whenever the distance from the surface of the water to the point of access to the ship is more than 9 m.

The IMO Resolution A.1045(27) contains the specializations for pilot transfer arrangements. This is available online from the IMO. Click here to download>

Accommodation ladders, together with any suspension arrangements or attachments
fitted and intended for use in accordance with this recommendation, should be to the
satisfaction of the flag state.

Angles

  • The length of the accommodation ladder should be sufficient to ensure that its angle of slope does not exceed 45°
  • In ships with large draft ranges, several pilot ladder hanging positions may be provided, resulting in lesser angles of slope
  • The lower platform of the accommodation ladder should be in a horizontal position
    and secured to the ship’s side when in use
  • Intermediate platforms, if fitted, should be self-levelling
  • Treads and steps of the accommodation ladder should be so designed that an adequate and safe foothold is given at the operative angles.

Dimensions

  • The accommodation ladder should be at least 600 mm in width.
    The lower platform should be a minimum of 5m above sea level
  • The pilot ladder should be rigged immediately adjacent to the lower platform of the
    accommodation ladder and the upper end should extend at least 2 m above the lower platform
  • The horizontal distance between the pilot ladder and the lower platform should be between 0.1 and 0.2 m

Fittings

  • The ladder and platform should be equipped on both sides with stanchions and rigid
    handrails, but if handropes are used they should be tight and properly secured
  • The vertical space between the handrail or handrope and the stringers of the ladder should be securely fenced.
  • If a trapdoor is fitted in the lower platform to allow access from and to the pilot
    ladder, the aperture should not be less than 750 mm x 750 mm
  • The trapdoor should open upwards and be secured either flat on the embarkation platform or against the rails at the aft end or outboard side of the platform and should not form part of the handholds

Really Handy Books Revision Guides for Kindle

gormleytankersternClick here to learn more about the guides>

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Pilot ladders- a quick guide to their specifications

PilotName

The last post covered the pilot boarding arrangements required by SOLAS V, this post delves a bit deeper into the detail with a summary of some of the specifications and dimensions of pilot ladders.

Where can the requirements for pilot ladders be found?

The IMO Resolution A.1045(27) contains the specializations for pilot ladders. This is available online from the IMO. Click here to download>

ISO 799:2004, Ships and marine technology – Pilot ladders

SOLAS also requires compliance with this International Standards Orginisation standard.

“ISO 799:2004 specifies requirements for a ship’s pilot ladder which is provided to enable a maritime pilot to embark and disembark a ship safely along a vertical portion of the ship’s hull. It is applicable to merchant ships which embark and disembark maritime pilots with the ship underway. National maritime safety administrations are urged to accept ladders complying with ISO 799:2004 on their ships, as complying fully with the requirements of the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), as amended.” ISO Website

Click here for a summary of the standard on the ISO website> 

Click here to buy ISO 799:2004 on Amazon>

What are the requirements of Pilot Ladder steps?

Material

  • If made of hardwood, they should be made in one piece, free of knots
  • If made of material other than hardwood, they should be of equivalent strength, stiffness and durability to the satisfaction of the Administration
  • The four lowest steps may be of rubber of sufficient strength and stiffness or other material to the satisfaction of the Administration
  • They should have an efficient non-slip surface

Dimensions

  • They should be not less than 400 mm between the side ropes, 115 mm wide and 25 mm in depth, excluding any non-slip device or grooving
  • They should be equally spaced not less than 310 mm or more than 350 mm apart
  • They should be secured in such a manner that each will remain horizontal

Replacement steps

  • No pilot ladder should have more than two replacement steps which are secured in position by a method different from that used in the original construction of the ladder
  •  Any steps so secured should be replaced as soon as reasonably practicable by steps secured in position by the method used in the original construction of the pilot ladder
  •  When any replacement step is secured to the side ropes of the pilot ladder by means of grooves in the sides of the step, such grooves should be in the longer sides of the step

Spreaders

  • Pilot ladders with more than five steps should have spreader steps not less than 1.8 m long provided at such intervals as will prevent the pilot ladder from twisting
  • The lowest spreader step should be the fifth step from the bottom of the ladder and the interval between any spreader step and the next should not exceed nine steps

What are the requirements for pilot ladder ropes and lines?

Retrieval line

  • When a retrieval line is considered necessary, the line should be fastened at or above the last spreader step and should lead forward. The retrieval line should not hinder the pilot nor obstruct the safe approach of the pilot boat
  • A permanent marking should be provided at regular intervals  throughout the length of the ladder in order to assist in the rigging of the ladder to the required height

Ropes

  • The side ropes of the pilot ladder should consist of two uncovered ropes not less than 18 mm in diameter on each side and should be continuous, with no joints and have a breaking strength of at least 24 Kilo Newtons per side rope
  •  The two side ropes should each consist of one continuous length of rope, the midpoint half-length being located on a thimble large enough to accommodate at least two passes of side rope
  • Side ropes should be made of manila or other material of equivalent strength, durability, elongation characteristics and grip which has been protected against  degradation and is satisfactory to the Administration
  •  Each pair of side ropes should be secured together both above and below each step with a mechanical clamping device properly designed for this purpose, or seizing method with step fixtures (chocks or widgets), which holds each step level when the ladder is hanging freely. The preferred method is seizing

 

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Pilot boarding- The SOLAS requirements

​This  exploration of SOLAS V will not attempt to follow any order. Bypassing all the earlier Regulations, I will jump straight into Regulation 23, pilot transfer arrangements.

Southampton Pilot Boat-Navsregs

Regulation 23 – Pilot Transfer Arrangements- A Handy Revision Guide

This post contains some of the key facts from SOLAS covering pilot boarding arrangements, and includes information on how and where a pilot ladder should be rigged.

Which ships must comply with the pilot boarding regulations?

Ships engaged on voyages in the course of which pilots may be employed.

Equipment and arrangements for pilot transfer which are provided on ships before 1 July 2012 shall at least comply with the requirements of regulations in SOLAS 1974, in force prior to that date.

What are the requirements of pilot transfer arrangements?

PilotName

  • All arrangements used for pilot transfer shall efficiently fulfil their purpose of enabling pilots to embark and disembark safely
  • The appliances shall be kept clean, properly maintained and stowed , and shall be regularly inspected
  • The appliances shall be used solely for the embarkation and disembarkation of personnel.
  • An accommodation ladder shall be used in conjunction with the pilot ladder, or other equally safe and convenient means, whenever the distance from the surface of the water to the point of access to the ship is more than 9 m.

Note: Mechanical pilot hoists shall not be used.

The rigging of pilot transfer arrangements

  • The rigging of the pilot transfer arrangements, and the embarkation of a pilot shall be supervised by a responsible officer having means of communication with the bridge.
  • The responsible officer who shall also arrange for the escort of the pilot by a safe route to and from the  bridge.
  • Personnel engaged in rigging and operating any mechanical equipment shall be instructed in the safe procedures to be adopted, and the equipment shall be tested prior to use.

 

Certification, marking and record keeping

  •  A pilot ladder shall be certified by the manufacturer as complying with SOLAS, or with an international standard acceptable to the Organization
  • All pilot ladders shall be clearly identified with tags or other permanent marking so as to enable identification of each appliance
  • A record shall be kept on the ship as to the date an identified ladder is placed into service and any repairs conducted

Pilot boat bow

Where should the pilot transfer arrangements be located?

Arrangements should enable the pilot to embark and disembark safely on either side of the ship.

Pilot ladders

Maximum 9 metres- the distance to remember

  • A pilot ladder must require a  climb of not less than 1.5 m and not more than 9 m above the surface of the water
  • It must be  is clear of any possible discharges from the ship
  • It  is within the parallel body length of the ship and, as far as is practicable, within the mid-ship half length of the ship
  • Each step must rest firmly against the ship’s side. Where constructional features would prevent this, special arrangements shall, to the satisfaction of the Administration, be made to ensure that persons are able to embark and disembark safely
  • The single length of pilot ladder is capable of reaching the water and allowance is made for all conditions of loading and trim of the ship, and for an adverse list of 15°

When accommodation ladders are used in conjunction with pilot ladders

  •  The accommodation ladder shall be sited leading aft
  •  Means shall be provided to secure the lower platform of the accommodation ladder firmly to the ship’s side
  • The lower end of the accommodation ladder is to be within within the parallel body length of the ship and, as far as is practicable, within the mid-ship half length
  • The lower end of the accommodation ladder is to be  clear of all discharges
  • Means shall be provided to secure the pilot ladder and manropes to the ship’s side at a point of nominally 1.5 m above the bottom platform of the accommodation ladder
  • When there is a trapdoor in the bottom platform, the pilot ladder and man ropes shall be rigged through the trapdoor  extending above the platform to the height of the handrail

What are the requirements for access to the ship’s deck?

See MSC 1428 for poster

  • There must be safe, convenient and unobstructed passage between the head of the pilot ladder, or of any accommodation ladder or other appliance, and the ship’s deck.
  • When a gateway in the rails or bulwark is used, adequate handholds shall be provided
  • When a bulwark ladder is used, two handhold stanchions rigidly secured to the ship’s structure at or near their bases and at higher points shall be fitted
  • A bulwark ladder shall be securely attached to the ship to prevent overturning

Shipside doors

Shipside doors used for pilot transfer shall not open outwards.

Equipment required at the pilot boarding location

The following associated equipment shall be kept at hand ready for immediate use when persons are being transferred:

  • Two man-ropes of not less than 28 mm and not more than 32 mm in diameter. The man-ropes shall be fixed at the rope end to the ring plate fixed on deck and shall be ready for use when required by the pilot.
  • A lifebuoy equipped with a self-igniting light
  • A heaving line
  •  When required, stanchions and bulwark ladders
  • Adequate lighting to illuminate the transfer arrangements overside and the position on deck where a person embarks or disembarks.

Some sources of useful information


A Really Handy Book to Learn the Collision Regulations

Amongst Navsbooks study guides for Kindle readers is this handy guide to revise the COLREGS.

Click here to download a sample from Amazon> 

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The Safety of Navigation- what is in SOLAS Chapter V?

After many months of exploring ship Certification this blog will now return to some bridge watch keeping related topics. So for those studying for officer of the watch, Mates, and Masters this will be well worth following. For those studying for engineering tickets the keep an eye on the topics for I am sure I will wander off into non-navigation subjects along the way.


Why is SOLAS V  a ‘must read’ for bridge watchkeepers?

If you are a bridge watchkeeper and have the time to read any one part of SOLAS, then this chapter should be it. Within its many regulations are many directly relevant to the keeping of a safe navigational watch.

The chapter is even more useful when used as a starting point for further study; as a framework to hang other knowledge on.

This series of posts will do just that, use some of the more important regulations as a starting point of an exploration of The Safety of Navigation.

What ships does SOLAS V apply to?

The chapter applies to all ships on all voyages, except:

  • Warships, naval auxiliaries and other ships owned or operated by a Contracting Government and used only on government non-commercial service. However, such vessels are  encouraged to act in a manner consistent, so far as reasonable and practicable, with the chapter.
  • Vessels in the Great Lakes and connected waters when navigating west of Quebec.

Flag states can decide how much of the chapter applies to the following vesses:

  • Ships operating solely in waters landward of the baselines which are established in accordance with international law.
  • Ships below 150 gross tonnage engaged on any voyage
  • Ships below 500 gross tonnage not engaged on international voyages
  • Fishing vessels

Click here for the UK MCA guidance on Chapter V>

The contents of SOLAS Chapter V

The Regulations

  • Regulation 1 -Application
  • Regulation 2 -Definitions
  • Regulation 3 -Exemptions and Equivalents
  • Regulation 4 -Navigational Warnings
  • Regulation 5 -Meteorological services and warnings
  • Regulation 6 -Ice Patrol Service
  • Regulation 7 -Search and rescue services
  • Regulation 8 -Life-saving signals
  • Regulation 9 -Hydrographic Services
  • Regulation 10 -Ships’ Routeing
  • Regulation 11 -Ship Reporting Systems
  • Regulation 12 -Vessel Traffic Services
  • Regulation 13 -Establishment and operation of aids to navigation
  • Regulation 14 -Ships’ manning
  • Regulation 15 -Principles relating to bridge design, design and arrangement of navigational systems and equipment and bridge procedures
  • Regulation 16 -Maintenance of Equipment
  • Regulation 17 -Electromagnetic compatibility
  • Regulation 18 -Approval, surveys and performance standards of navigational systems and equipment and voyage data recorder
  • Regulation 19 -Carriage requirements for shipborne navigational systems and equipment
  • Regulation 19-1 -Long Range Identification and Tracking of Ships
  • Regulation 20 -Voyage data recorders
  • Regulation 21 -International Code of Signals
  • Regulation 22 -Navigation bridge visibility
  • Regulation 23 -Pilot transfer arrangements
  • Regulation 24 -Use of heading and/or track control systems
  • Regulation 25 -Operation of main source of electrical power and steering gear
  • Regulation 26 -Steering gear: Testing and drills
  • Regulation 27 -Nautical charts and nautical publications
  • Regulation 28-Records of navigational activities and daily reporting
  • Regulation 29 -Life-saving signals to be used by ships, aircraft or persons in distress
  • Regulation 30 -Operational limitations
  • Regulation 31 -Danger Messages
  • Regulation 32 -Information required in danger messages
  • Regulation 33 -Distress Situations: Obligations and procedures
  • Regulation 34 -Safe navigation and avoidance of dangerous situations
  • Regulation 34-1 -Master’s Discretion
  • Regulation 35 -Misuse of distress signals


The Really Handy Study Guides

Navsregs publishes a range of revision guides for Mariners..

These are all available in the Kindle Format, and cover the Collision Regulations, semananship and Certification.

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What is in SOLAS Chapter XI?

This blog will now take a pause in its exploration of ship’scertificates.  But before it moves on to the next topic here is a very quick post on an eclectic chapter in SOLAS.


Special Measures to Enhance Maritime Safety

SOLAS Chapter XI is a mixture of assorted Regulations, some covering safety, and some security. Hidden within this Chapter are some important Regulations that may be expected to be contained in other parts of SOLAS.

Contents of the Chapter

  • Regulation 1 – Authorization of Recognized Organizations
  • Regulation 2 – Enhanced Surveys
  • Regulation 3 – Ship Identification Number
  • Regulation 3-1 – Company and Registered Owner Identification Number
  •  Regulation 4 – Port State Control on Operational Requirements 
  •  Regulation 5 – Continuous Synopsis Record
  •  Regulation 6 – Additional Requirements for the Investigation of Marine Casualties and Incidents 
  •  Regulation 7 – Atmosphere Testing Instrument for Enclosed Spaces

    What useful information can be found in these regulations?

    Regulation 2  contains the additional hull survey requirements for bulk carriers and oil tankers.This Regulation mandates the requirement to comply with the ESP code.

    Regulation 3 contains the requirements to display  the vessels IMO number.

    Regulation 5 contains the requirements to hold a CSR.

    Regulation 7 contains the requirement to hold portable atmosphere testing equipment.


    To find SOLAS and other conventions on Amazon, click here>

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    Oil Liability Certificates- A handy guide

    BeachPan

    This journey through vessel certification is nearing its final posts; a series of assorted guides to certificates missed on the first pass through the certificates. This revision guide covers two documents related to the IOPP certificate.

    If things go wrong

    MARPOL Annex I has the objectives of preventing oil reaching the sea, but these two certificates are associated with conventions whose objectives are to fund the cleaning up of pollution in the unfortunate event of a spill.

    What are the two Oil Pollution Liability Conventions?

    Two similar conventions exist, each with their own certificate.

    • The International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution DamageDSCF3260
    • The International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage

    The first convention applies to all types of ships, and the latter to seagoing vessels carrying oil in bulk as a cargo.


    Certificate of insurance or other financial security in respect of civil liability for bunker oil pollution damage


    This certificate is Issued in accordance with the provisions of article 7 of the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, 2001. It certifies that there is in a policy of insurance or other financial security satisfying the requirements of article 7 of the International Convention.

    What ships require the Certificate?

    It is required by ships greater than 1000 GT.

    What details are shown on the certificate?

    • Name of Ship
    • Distinctive Number or letters
    • IMO Ship Identification Number
    • Port of Registry
    • Name and full address of the principal place of business of the registered owner.
    • Type of Security
    • Duration of Security
    •  Name and address of the insurers and/or guarantors
    • Validity of certificate

    What is the definition of pollution Damage?

    A definition from the Convention
    “‘ Pollution damage’ means: (a) (b) 10 loss or damage caused outside the ship by contamination resulting from the escape or discharge of bunker oil from the ship, wherever such escape or discharge may occur, provided that compensation for impairment of the environment other than loss of profit from such impairment shall be limited to costs of reasonable measures of reinstatement actually undertaken or to be undertaken; and the costs of preventive measures and further loss or damage caused by preventive measures.”


    Certificate of insurance or other financial security in respect of civil liability for oil pollution damage


    This is issued in compliance with the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil DSCF3305Pollution Damage (CLC) 1992. The Civil Liability Convention was adopted to ensure that adequate compensation is available to persons who suffer oil pollution damage resulting from maritime casualties involving oil-carrying ships. The Convention places the liability for such damage on the owner of the ship from which the polluting oil escaped or was discharged.

    What vessels require the Certificate?

    The Convention applies to all seagoing vessels actually carrying oil in bulk as cargo, but only ships carrying more than 2,000 tons of oil are required to maintain insurance in respect of oil pollution damage.

    The certificate states that there is in force a policy of insurance or other financial security satisfying the requirements of Article VII of the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1992.

    What information contained on certificate

    This is the same range of information as shown on the bunker liability certificate, except it refers to the damage caused by cargo spillage.


    A new Revision Guide

    A Really Handy Guide to Ship Certification

    Part 2- Managing the vesselCertmanCover

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    This Really Handy Guide mixes facts with questions, and a bit more, at a really handy price.

     

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    Maritime Conventions and Codes on Amazon

    wp-1481562626266.jpgThroughout the recent posts on this blog have been references to various International Maritime Conventions and Codes. Now that all the key certificates have been covered, it is probably a good time to provide a quick reference to where to purchase the source publications.

    Where to find the publications on Amazon

    When I started building this post my intention was to give links to each book. Unfortunately, I was soon thwarted by the high range in prices being offered on line. In order to avoid providing links towards overpriced I have instead given some search links that will allow a quick check of what is currently being offered on-line.

    Before buying through Amazon then it is recommended to check the suppliers and prices IMOfrom the IMO, at their publication page.

    The International Conventions

    solas

    Codes

    Other Codes and guidance

     

     

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    The High Speed Craft Code

    DSC00654To complete the exploration of the High Speed Craft Safety Certification, here is a quick post on the high speed craft code.

    Two High Speed Craft Codes

    High speed craft have to comply with one of two codes, with the date of build determining which one.

    • The International Code of safety for High speed Craft 1994
    • The International Code of safety for High speed Craft 2000

    The 2000 Code applies to high speed craft of which the keels were laid or which are at a similar stage of construction on or after 1 July 2002.

    What is the link between SOLAS and the High Speed Craft Code?

    Chapter X of SOLAS is dedicated to high speed craft. A small chapter of only three regulations, the last of which contains the following:

    “.1 a high-speed craft constructed on or after 1 January 1996 but before 1 July 2002 which complies with the requirements of the High-Speed Craft Code, 1994 in its entirety and which has been surveyed and certified as provided in that Code shall be deemed to have complied with the requirements of chapters I to IV and regulations V/18, 19 and 20. For the purpose of this regulation, the requirements of that Code shall be treated as mandatory;

    .2 a high-speed craft constructed on or after 1 July 2002 which complies with the requirements of the High-Speed Craft Code, 2000 in its entirety and which has been surveyed and certified as provided in that Code shall be deemed to have complied with the requirements of chapters I to IV and regulations V/18, 19 and 20.”

    In simple terms this states that an High speed craft that complies with the relevant code does not require to comply with the SOLAS chapters that apply to cargo and passanger ships.

    What is the concept of the code?

    The High-Speed Craft Code  recognizes that safety levels can behsccode
    significantly enhanced by the infrastructure associated with regular service on a particular route, whilst the conventional ship safety philosophy relies on the ship being self-sustaining with all necessary emergency equipment being carried on board. The Code is based on the management and reduction of risk as well as the traditional philosophy of passive protection in the event of an accident.

    What does the code cover?

    This summary of the chapter headings from the code will give an overview of its scope:

    • Buoyancy, stability and Subdivision
    • Structures
    • Accommodation and escape measures
    • Directional control systems
    • Anchoring, towing and berthing
    • Fire safety
    • Life saving appliances and arrangements
    • Machinery
    • Auxiliary systems
    • Remote control, alarm and safety systems
    • Electrical installations
    • Ship Navigational systems and equipment and voyage data recorders
    • Radio communications
    • Operating Compartment layout
    • Stabilization systems
    • Handling, controllability and performance
    • Operational requirements
    • Inspection and maintenance requirements

    For more information


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    First in the series of Ship Certification revision guides

    A Really Handy Guide to Ship Certification, Part 1, is available for Kindle readers.

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