What standards are required for Navigational Bridge Equipment?

A ferry enclosed Navigation BridgeSOLAS-Regulation 18 – Approval, surveys and performance standards of navigational systems and equipment and voyage data recorder

This exploration of the safety of navigation section of SOLAS now looks at the performance standards required for ship’s bridge equipment. In addition to a quick look at the regulation 18 the post also provides a set of links to the related resolutions containing the standards.

What does Regulation 18 require?

That systems and equipment required to meet the requirements of regulations 19 and 20 shall be of a type approved by the Administration and  Systems and equipment installed on or after 1 July 2002 to perform the functional requirements of regulations 19 and 20 shall conform to appropriate performance standards not inferior to those adopted by the Organization.

What must you ensure if bridge equipment is installed of replaced?

That  the requirements of Regulation 18 are met.

UK MCA table of IMO performance standards

Bridge of a Fyffe ship

The IMO Standards

I have used the UK table of IMO performance standards list the resolutions and whenever possible linked across to the sources of the document. Some of these links are to IMO pages, others to National Authority web pages. 

General

  • IMO index of resolutions
  • A.694(17)– General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • A.813(19)-General requirements for Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

Intergration

Integrated Bridge Systems (IBS)

  • MSC.64 (67) Annex 1 -Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)– General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

 Integrated Navigation Systems (INS)

  • MSC.86 (70) Annex 3-Adoption of new and amended performance standards for Navigational equipment.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Direction

Compasses

Magnetic Compass

  • IMO A.382 (X)- Magnetic compasses carriage and performance standardsAn old Tug's bridge window
  • A.694(17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Gyro Compass

  • A.424 (XI)-Performance standards for gyro-compasses
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Gyro Compass- HSC

  • A.821 (19)Performance standards for gyro-compasses for high-speed craft
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Display of direction information

Gyro Compass Heading Repeater

  • A.424 (XI)-Performance standards for gyro-compasses
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Gyro Bearing Repeater

  • A.424 (XI)Performance standards for gyro-compasses.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Transmitting Heading Device (THD)

  • MSC.116(78)– Application of performance standards for Transmitting Heading Devices (THDs) to Marine Transmitting Magnetic Heading Devices (TMHDs)
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Transmitting Magnetic Heading Device (TMHD)

  • MSC.86 (70) ANNEX 2-Adoption of new and amended performance standards for Navigational equipment.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • SC.116(78)– Application of performance standards for Transmitting Heading Devices (THDs) to Marine Transmitting Magnetic Heading Devices (TMHDs)

Rate of Turn Indicator

  • A.526 (13)– Performance standards for rate of turn indicators
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids

Bridge wing of a ferry

Control

Automatic Pilots

  • A.342 (IX)-Recommendation on performance standards for automatic pilots.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Track Control Systems

  • MSC.74 (69) annex 2- Adoption of new and amended performance standards
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Automatic Pilots for HSC

  • A.822 (19)Performance standards for automatic steering aids (automatic pilots) for high-speed craft
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Distance

Speed and Distance Measuring Equipment (SDME)

  • A.478 (XII) Performance standards for devices to indicate speed an distance
  • A.824(19)-performance standards for devices to measure speed and distance
  • MSC.96(72)- Adoption of amendments to performance standards for devices to measure and indicate speed and distance

Echo Sounder

  • A.224 (VII) –Performance standards for Echo-Sounding equipment
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Rocky coastline in Cornwall

Position

Electronic charts

ECDIS Standard

  • A.817 (19) -Performance standards for Electronic Chart Display and information systems (ECDIS)
  • A.232(82)-Adoption of revised performance standards for Electronic Chart Display and information systems (ECDIS)
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Back up requirements

  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • MSC.64(67) annex 5- Adoption of new and amended performance standards.

RCDS mode of operation

  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • MSC.86(70) annex 4-Adoption of new and amended performance standards for Navigational equipment.

Electronic Navigation Systems

Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver (GNSS)GPS

  • A.819 (19)

Now

  • MSC.112(73)-Adoption of the revised performance standards for shipborne global positioning system (GPS) receiver equipment.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

GLONASS

  • MSC.53 (66)-Performance standards for shipborne GLONASS reciter equipment.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

DGPS / DGLONASS

  • MSC.64 (67) annex 2-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • MSC.114(73) -Adoption of the revised performance standards for shipborne DGPS and DGLONASS Maritime Radio Beacon Receiver equipment

Combined GPS/GLONASS

  • MSC.74 (69)-Adoption of new and amended performance standards
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Electronic Position Fixing Systems

Worldwide radio navigation system

  • A.815 (19)-Worldwide Navigation System.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Accuracy standards for navigation

  • A.529 (13)-Accuracy standards for Navigation
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Differential OMEGA

  • A.479 (XII) -Performance Standards for shipborne receivers for use with differential Omega.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

LORAN-C and CHAYKA

  • A.818 (19)-Performance standards for shipborne LORAN-C and chayka receivers
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Radars , radios and lights on ship's gantry mast

Detection

Radar

Consolidated performance standards for all new Radar Equipment (1/7/2008 and after)

  • MSC.192(79) -Adoption of the revised performance standards for Radar Equipment

Radar Equipment

Before 01/09/1984

  • A.222 (VII) -Performance standards for Radar Navigational Equipment
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Between 01/09/1984 and 31/12/1998

  • A.477 (XII)-Performance standards for Radar Equipment
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

On or after 01/01/1999

  • MSC.64(67) Annex 4-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.

Radar Equipment for HSC

  • A.820 (19)– Performance standards for navigational equipment for high speed craft.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Radar- Symbols for Controls

  • A.278 (VIII)Supplement on performance standards for navigational radar equipment
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Plotting

Automatic Radar Plotting Aid (ARPA)

  • A.422 (XI)-Performance standards for Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA)
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Electronic Plotting Aid (EPA)

  • MSC.64 (67) Annex 4-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Automatic Tracking Aid ATA

  • MSC.64 (67) Annex 4-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Enhancing

Radar Reflector

  • A.384 (X)-Performance standards for Radar Reflectors
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.
  • MSC.164(78)-Revised performance standards for Radar Reflectors

Radar Beacons & Transponders

  • A.615 (15)Radar beacons and transponders
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

SARTS

  • A.802 (19)-Performance standards for Survival Craft Radar Transponders for use in Search a Rescue operations
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids

Main mast

Awareness

Automatic Identification System (AIS)

MSC.74 (69) annex 3

A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Lookout

Sound Reception System

  • MSC.86 (70)-Adoption of new and amended performance standards.
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Night Vision Equipment

  • MSC.94 (72)-Performance standards for night vision equipment for High-Speed Craft (HSC)
  • A.694-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Signalling Lamps

  • MSC.95 (72)-Performance standards for daylight signalling lamps

Recording

Voyage Data Recorder (VDR)

  • A.861 (20)-Performance standards for Shipborne Voyage Data Recorders (VDRs)
  • A.694 (17)-General Requirements for Shipborne Radio equipment forming part of the GMDSS and for electronic navigation aids.

Simplified Voyage Data Recorder (S-VDR)

  • MSC.163(78)-Performance standards for Shipborne Simplified Voyage Data Recorders (VDRs)

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SOLAS V and Steering Gear

Stern of Isle of Wight Ferry Leaving Portsmouth

Another Regulation of SOLAS V-Safety of Navigation-explored

And so the wader through SOLAS V continues with its equipment related theme. This time its the steering gear, and in particular. the tests an Officer of the Watch must conduct.

Regulation 26-Steering gear- Testing and Drills

This Regulation within SOLAS V contains the requirements for the pre-sailing tests of steering gear tests.

Click here for the UK MCA guidance on Regulation 26>

When should the pre-departure testing of steering gear be conducted?

It should be tested within 12 hours before departure

What equipment should include within the steering gear testing procedure?

  • The main steering gear
  • The auxiliary steering gear
  • The remote steering gear control systems
  • The steering positions located on the navigation bridge
  • The emergency power supply
  • The rudder angle indicators in relation to the actual position of the rudder
  • The remote steering gear control system power failure alarms
  • The steering gear power unit failure alarms
  • The automatic isolating arrangements and other automatic equipment

What tests and checks should be included in the steering gear testing procedures?

  • The full movement of the rudder according to the required capabilities of the steering gear
  • A visual inspection for the steering gear and its connecting linkage
  • The operation of the means of communication between the navigation bridge and steering gear compartment

Movement-Visual-Communications

The flag state may waive the requirements to carry out the checks and tests for ships which regularly engage on short voyages. Such ships shall carry out these checks and tests at least once every week.

How often should the emergency steering gear be tested?

Emergency steering drills shall take place at least once every three months.

These drills shall include

  • Direct control within the steering gear compartment
  • The communications procedure with the navigation bridge
  • Where applicable, the operation of alternative power supplies

The date upon which the checks and tests are carried out and the date and details of emergency steering drills carried shall be recorded.

What should be displayed regarding the steering gear change over procedures?

A simple operating instructions with a block diagram showing the change-over procedures for remote steering gear control systems. This shall be permanently displayed on the navigation bridge and in the steering compartment.

Note: All ships’ officers concerned with the operation and/or maintenance of steering gear shall be familiar with the operation of the steering systems fitted on the ship and with the procedures for changing from one system to another.

Car ferry manouvering

In addition to the testing requirements, SOLAS V contains a short regulation requiring the use of more than one steering gear.

SOLAS V Regulation 25-Operation of Steering Gear

When should more than one steering gear be used?

In areas where navigation demands special caution,  when steering gear units are capable of simultaneous operation.

Click here for MCA guidance on Regulation 25>

 

A diversion beyond SOLAS V into the Construction section of the convention gives the performance standards required when testing the steering gear.

SOLAS II-1 Regulation 29-Steering Gear

How quick should a rudder turn?

At maximum ahead service speed the rudder must be capable of putting the rudder over:

From 35° on one side to 35° on the other side

and

From 35° on either side to 30° on the other side in not more than 28 seconds.

The auxiliary steering gear shall be of adequate strength and capable of steering the ship at navigable speed and be capable of putting the rudder over from 15° on one side to 15° on the other side in not more than 60 seconds at one half of the maximum ahead service speed or 7 knots, whichever is the greater.

Other online sources of information

 


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What are the requirements for VDRs?

Radars , radios and lights on ship's gantry mast

Voyage Data Recorders- the Maritime’Black box’

A quick guide to  The SOLAS requirements

The blog now returns to the series of posts on SOLAS V with a topic that follows on nicely from the last post on MAIB accident reporting requirements.

 

SOLAS V-Regulation 20 – Voyage Data Recorders

Click here for the UK MCA guidance of Regulation 20>

Why are VDRs required?

To assist in casualty investigations.

VDR Capsule as shown on IMO website, click to visit the site

Click For IMO page on VDRs

Click here for the IMO page on VDRs>

Which ships require to be fitted with an SDR?

Ships, when engaged on international voyages:

  • All passenger ships
  • Ships, other than passenger ships, of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2002

Which ships must be fitted with a VDR or a simplified voyage data recorder (S-VDR)?

  • Cargo ships of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards

Non-passenger ships on or above 3000 GT built after July 2002, and all passanger ships must have a VDR. Non-passenger ships built before July 2002 must have either a VDR or SVDR.  SDRs are Simplified data recorders that have less inputs then a full VDR.

What is a VDR?

Full information can be found at:

What is a VDRs Purpose

To maintain a store, in a secure and retrievable form, information concerning the position, movement, physical status, command and control of a ship over the period leading up to and following an incident.

This information is for use during any subsequent safety investigation to identify the causes of the incident.

Click here for MSC 1024-GUIDELINES ON VOYAGE DATA RECORDER (VDR)
OWNERSHIP AND RECOVERY

Who should the VDR information be made available to?

Information contained in a VDR should be made available to both the Administration and the shipowner.

What is included within the term ‘VDR’?

The complete system, including:

  • Any items required to interface with the sources of input signals and their processing and encoding
  • The final recording medium
  • The playback equipment
  • The power supply and dedicated reserve power source

img_20160915_132855_hdr_kindlephoto-117081169.jpg

What must a VDR do?

  • Continuously maintain sequential records of pr-selected data items relating to the status and output of the ship’s equipment, and command and control of the ship
  • Allow analysis of factors surrounding an incident
  • Include functions to perform a performance test at any time

The final recording medium should consist of the following items:

  • Fixed recording medium-Capable of being accessed after an accident- maintain data for 2 years after termination
  • Float-free recording medium;-6 months after termination,this is to  transmit a homing signal
  • Long-term recording medium- Accessible internaly

What Data items are to be recorded?Main mast

  • Date and time– From an external source
  • Ship’s position-From electronic position fixing system
  • Speed– over water and over ground
  • Heading– As ship’s heading source
  • Bridge audio-Covering all bridge workstations. At least 2 channels
  • Communications audio– On separate channel
  • Radar-Main displays of both radar installations
  • ECDIS-Record the display of ECDIS in use as primary means of navigation
  • Echo sounder– Depth information
  • Main alarms– Status of mandatory alarms
  • Rudder order and response– Includes settings of heading or track controller
  • Engine and thruster order and response-positions of any engine telegraphs or direct engine/propeller/Thruster controls, feedback indications and the control station in use
  • Hull openings status– To include all mandatory status information required to be carried on the bridge
  • Watertight and fire door status— To include all mandatory status information required to be carried on the bridge
  • Accelerations and hull stresses- When a ship is fitted with hull stress and response monitoring equipment
  • Wind speed and direction– Where a ship is fitted with a suitable sensor, wind speed and direction
  • AIS- All AIS data should be recorded
  • Rolling motion– If electronic inclinometer

What is a S-DVR?

A simplified voyage data recorder that fulfils the same requirements of an VDR, but with less inputs. They can be carried by cargo ships of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards instead of a VDR built after July 2002.

For full information see

IMO  RESOLUTION MSC.163(78)- PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR SHIPBORNE SIMPLIFIED VOYAGE DATA RECORDERS (S-VDRs)

What data items need to be recorded by a S-VDR?

  • Date and time– From an external source
  • Ship’s position-From electronic position fixing system
  • Speed– over water and over ground
  • Heading– As ship’s heading source
  • Bridge audio-Covering all bridge workstations. At least 2 channels
  • Communications audio– On separate channel
  • Radar data,- Main displays of of radar installations
  • AIS Data-If it is impossible to obtain radar data3 then AIS target data should be recorded as a source of information regarding other ships. If radar data is recorded,, AIS information may be recorded additionally as a  secondary source of information
  • Other items– Any additional data items required for a VDR should be recorded when the data is available.

Surveys and inspections

For more information see:

What test is the VDR and SDV-R subject to?

The voyage data recorder system, including all sensors, shall be subjected to an annual performance test.  The test shall be conducted by an approved testing or servicing facility

What is the objective of the annual VDR test?

  • To verify the accuracy, duration and recoverability of the recorded data
  • To determine the serviceability of all protective enclosures and devices fitted to aid location

A copy of the certificate of compliance issued by the testing facility, stating the date of compliance and the applicable performance standards, shall be retained on board the ship.


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Marine Incident Reporting- what does MGN 564 say?

A Handy Summary to MGN 564 on Marine Casualty and Marine Incident Reporting.

A shipwreck near Port Stanley

A Quick break from SOLAS V posts to look at a new important M Notice from the UK MAIB.Click to view the MGN on the UK GOV website

The UK MAIB has recently issued a new M Notice MGN 564(M + F) on  Marine Casualty and Marine Incident Reporting. This explains what accidents and near misses needs to be reported to the Marine Accident Investigation Branch.

Recommend sources of information

The M Notice

What ships are required to report incidents?

  • A UK ship
  • A ship is within UK waters and carrying passengers to/from the UK
  • The marine casualty or marine incident occurs within the jurisdiction of a UK harbour master

Which other organisations are required to report incidents?

  • Harbour authorities, for occurrences in or adjacent to their harbour area
  • The person, authority or body having responsibility for an inland waterway

Which vessels do not have to report?

  • Recreational craft hired on a bareboat basis
  • Commercial craft or boats <8m length overall that are operating in a harbour or on an inland waterway, which are not carrying passengers
  • Unless the marine casualty involves an explosion, fire, or capsize of a power driven vessel, or results in death, serious injury or severe pollution

A pleasure vessel (though notifications are welcomed).Click to view MAIB accident reports

The definition of a pleasure vessel is covered later in this post.

What has to be reported?

  • Marine casualties
  • Marine incidents

What is a marine casualty?

  • An event or sequence of events that occurred directly in connection with the operation of a ship, and resulted in:
  • Death
  • A serious injury to, a person that renders the person unable to perform their usual duties for greater 72 hours, or requires their admittance to a hospital / medical facility for greater than 24 hours
  • The loss of a person from a ship
  • The loss, presumed loss or abandonment of a ship.
  • Material damage to a ship. This means the structural integrity, performance or operational characteristics of the ship or infrastructure are significantly affected, and requires major repair or replacement of a major component or components
  • The ship being unfit to proceed, or requires flag state approval or a condition of class before it may proceed
  • At sea, a breakdown of the ship, requiring towage.
  • The stranding or disabling of a ship, or the involvement of a ship in a collision
  • Material damage to marine infrastructure external of a ship that could seriously endanger the safety of the ship, another ship or any individual
  • Pollution, caused by damage to a ship or ships

What is a marine incident?

A marine incident means an event, or sequence of events, which occurred directly in connection with the operation of a ship, that do not meet the criteria to be classified as a marine casualty but that endangered or, if not corrected would endanger, the safety of the ship, its occupants or any other person or the environment.

Examples of marine incidents include:

  • Close-quarters situations where urgent action was required to avoid collision.
  • Any event that had the potential to result in a serious injury.
  • A fire that did not result in material damage.
  • An unintended temporary grounding on soft mud, where there was no risk of stranding or material damage.
  • A person overboard who was recovered without serious injury.
  • Snagging of fishing gear resulting in a dangerous heel

What is not to be reported?

There is no requirement to report:

  • Defects to equipment and vessel detentions, unless they are related to a marine casualty or marine incident
  • Injuries to passengers that did not result from activities connected with the operation of the vessel. For example: a passenger suffering a fall on board a ship, where the ship’s movement, design, or acts or omissions by crew were not contributing factors
  • Damage or injuries occurring ashore, including the quayside, which do not involve the ship’s equipment
  • A deliberate act or omission that is intended to cause harm to the safety of a ship, an individual (e.g. assault, suicide or homicide) or the environment

When is the report to be made?

All marine casualties and marine incidents must be notified to the MAIB as soon as practicable by the quickest means available. Notification must not be delayed until the completion of an internal company investigation.

How is the report to be made?

  • By telephone to  MAIB’s 24 hour accident reporting line.
  • By submitting an Accident Report Form (ARF)

Rocky coastline in Cornwall

Pleasure vessels

What is a pleasure vessel?

A vessel which is:

Wholly owned by an individual or individuals and used only for the sport or Small craft at Portsmouth Hard, HMS Warrior in the backgroundpleasure of the owner or the immediate family or friends of the owner

Or

Owned by a body corporate and used only for the sport or pleasure of employees or officers of the body corporate, or their immediate family or friends

And

Is on a voyage which the owner is not paid for.

The Merchant Shipping (Accident Reporting and Investigation) Regulations 2005 contains more details and explanation of a pleasure vessel.

Incident reporting and SOLAS

Click here for the IMO page on casualty investigation>

What SOLAS regulation requires accident investigation?NAVSREGSOLASCover

SOLAS 1 Regulation 21 requires each Administration to conduct an investigation of any casualty occurring to any of its ships when it judges that such an investigation may assist in determining what changes in the present regulations might be desirable.

What is the Casualty investigation code?

This is a code that Administrations must follow when investing marine incidents. It is introduced by SOLAS Chapter XI-1, Regulation 6 -Additional Requirements for the Investigation of Marine Casualties and Incidents.

Click here for a copy of the code>


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What are the Carriage requirements for shippborne Navigation systems and equipment?

 

 A Quick Guide to SOLAS V Regulations 19

A ferry enclosed Navigation Bridge

This series of posts on SOLAS V continues with a quick guide on the requirements for the carriage of Navigation equipment. 

General

What regulation covers the Carriage requirements for ship’s navigation systems?

SOLAS V, Regulation 19- Carriage requirements for shipborne navigational systems and equipment.

What equipment is included within the regulation?

Click here to view the Regulation on the UK MCA website>

What ships need to comply with SOLAS V?

  •  New ships (1 July 2002) must comply fully with the requirements of this regulation.
  •  Existing ships may continue to comply with the regulations in force before 1 July 2002 except that they must be fitted with a GNSS receiver (which replaces the requirement for a RDF receiver) and AIS in accordance with a specified timetable

Click here for a table on the UK MCA website of carriage requirements>

Direction and SpeedEnclosed bridge wing

Compasses

What is the requirement to carry a Magnetic compass?

All ships irrespective of size shall have:

  • A properly adjusted standard magnetic compass or other means, independent of any power supply to determine the ship’s heading and display the reading at the main steering position
  • A pelorus or compass bearing device, or other means, independent of any power supply to take bearings over an arc of the horizon of 360°
  • Means of correcting heading and bearings to true at all times

All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition be fitted with:

  • A spare magnetic compass interchangeable with the magnetic compass, or other means to perform the function referred to by replacement or duplicate equipment

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size shall, in addition:

  • A properly adjusted transmitting heading device, or other means to transmit heading information for input to specified equipment

Ferry bridge from astern

What are the requirements to carry a Gyro Compass?

All ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A gyro compass, or other means, to determine and display their heading by shipborne non-magnetic means, being clearly readable by the helmsman at the main steering position. These means shall also transmit heading information for input to specified equipment.
  • A  gyro compass heading repeater, or other means, to supply heading information visually at the emergency steering position if provided
  • A gyro compass bearing repeater, or other means, to take bearings, over an arc of the horizon of 360º, using the gyro compass or other means. However ships less than 1,600 gross tonnage shall be fitted with such means as far as possible

Heading Control

What is the requirement for a heading or track control systems?BridgeandMoon

All ships of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A heading or track control system, or other means, to automatically control and keep to a heading and/or straight track

All ships of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall have:

  • A rate of turn indicator, or other means, to determine and display the rate of turn

Speed

What is the requirement to carry speed monitoring equipment?

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and all passenger ships:

  • Speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance through the water

All ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards:

  • Rudder, propeller, thrust, pitch and operational mode indicators, or other means to determine and display rudder angle, propeller revolutions, the force and direction of thrust and, if applicable, the force and direction of lateral thrust and the pitch and operational mode, all to be readable from the conning position

All ships of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards have:

Condor Ferry leaving Portsmouth

  • A speed and distance measuring device, or other means, to indicate speed and distance over the ground in the forward and athwartships direction

Navigation

Charts and publications

What is the requirement for a ship to carry navigational Charts?

Vessels of any size shall carry:

  • Nautical charts and nautical publications to plan and display the ship’s route for the intended voyage and to plot and monitor positions throughout the voyage.
  • An electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) is also accepted as meeting the chart carriage requirements
  • A back-up arrangement  if this function is partly or fully fulfilled by electronic means

An appropriate folio of paper nautical charts may be used as a back-up arrangement for ECDIS.

What is the requirement to carry ECDIS?

Ships engaged on international voyages shall be fitted with an Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) as follows:

Ships built since 2012

  •  Passenger ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July Commodore Clipper's bidge2012
  • Tankers of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2012
    Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed on or after 1 July 2013
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 10,000 gross tonnage constructed on or after 1 July 2014
  • Passenger ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2012, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2014

Ships built prior to 2012

  • Tankers of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2012, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2015
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 50,000 gross tonnage and upwards constructed before 1 July 2013, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2016
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 20,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 50,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1 July 2013, not later than the first survey on or after 1 July 2017
  • Cargo ships, other than tankers, of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 20,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1 July 2013, not alter than the first survey on or after 1 July 2018

Click here for a copy of resolution A.817(19)>

Position Fixing

What position fixing must be carried?

  • A receiver for a global navigation satellite system or a terrestrial radio navigationMain mast system, or other means, suitable for use at all times throughout the intended voyage to establish and update the ship’s position by automatic means

What the requirement to carry an Echo Sounder?

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards:

  • An echo sounding device, or other electronic means, to measure and display the available depth of water

Collision Avoidance

Radar

What radar equipment must a ship carry?

If less than 150 gross tonnage and if practicable:

  • A radar reflector or other means, to enable detection by ships navigating by radar at both 9 and 3 GHZ

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships:

  • A 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of radar transponders and of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance
  • An electronic plotting aid, or other means, to plot electronically the range and bearing of targets to determine collision risk

All ships of 3000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • A 3 GHz radar or where considered appropriate by the Administration a second 9 GHz radar, or other means to determine and display the range and bearing of other surface craft, obstructions, buoys, shorelines and navigational marks to assist in navigation and in collision avoidance
  • A second automatic tracking aid, or other means to plot automatically the range
  • and bearing of other targets to determine collision risk

All ships of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards shall, in addition have:

  • An automatic radar plotting aid (ARPA)  or other means, to plot automatically the range and bearing of at least 20 other targets, connected to a device to indicate speed and distance through the water, to determine collision risks and simulate a trial manoeuvre

CommunicationsSunset through a bridge window

Internal

What is the requirement for internal communications to steering positions?

  • A telephone, or other means, to communicate heading information to the emergency steering position, if provided

External

What must be fitted to an enclosed bridge?

  • When the ship’s bridge is totally enclosed and unless the Administration determines otherwise, a sound reception system, or other means, to enable the officer in charge of the navigational watch to hear sound signals and determine their direction

What  visual means of communication must be carried?

All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and passenger ships irrespective of size:

  • A daylight signalling lamp, or other means to communicate by light during day and night using an energy source of electrical power not solely dependent upon the ship’s power supply

AIS

What ships must carry an AIS?Geared general cargo ship

All ships of 300 gross tonnage and upwards engaged on international voyages and cargo ships of 500 gross tonnage and upwards not engaged on international voyages and passenger ships irrespective of size shall be fitted with an automatic identification

What functions must an AIS provide?

  • Provide automatically to appropriately equipped shore stations, other ships and aircraft information, including the ship’s identity, type, position, course, speed, navigational status and other safety-related information
  • Receive automatically such information from similarly fitted ships;
  • Monitor and track ships
  • Exchange data with shore-based facilities

When Must AIS be used?

Ships fitted with AIS shall maintain AIS in operation at all times except where international agreements, rules or standards provide for the protection of navigational information.

Click for UK MCA guidance on the use of AIS>

Click for IMO A 917(22) Guidelines for use of AIS

Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm System (BNAWS)

Which ships are required to carry a BNAWS?

  • All ships of 150 gross tonnage and upwards and all passenger ship

When must a BNAWS be used?

The bridge navigational watch alarm system shall be in operation whenever the ship is underway at sea.

Click here for IACS requirements concerning navigation>

Click to search for the Bridge Procedures Guide on Amazon>


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Bridge Visibility- Regulation 22 of SOLAS V

Bridge front of a ship

A Handy Guide

A good visual lookout is the foundation of a navigational watch.  It therefore forms the most important element of a bridge design, and is subject to its own SOLAS regulation. This post looks at that SOLAS regulation, and the related IMO  guidelines. 

Rule 5 Collision Regulations- Lookout

“Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and risk of collision.”

What ships need to comply with Regulation 22 of SOLAS V?

Ships of not less than 55 metres in length constructed after 1st of July 1988.

Field of view

How close should an officer of the watch be able to see ahead?

The view of the sea surface from the conning position shall not be obscured by:

  • More than two ship lengths

Or

  •  500 metres

Whichever is the less, forward of the bow to 10° on either side under all conditions of draught, trim and deck cargo.

How large can blind sectors be forward of the beam?

  • No single blind arc shall exceed 10°.
  • Total blind sectors shall not exceed  20°.
  • Clear sectors between blind arcs shall be at least be  5°
  • In the view 10 either side of bow no sector should exceed  5°

These figures are important to remember when loading deck cargo.

How big must the horizontal field of vision be from the conning position?

An arc of not less than 225°, that is from right ahead to not less than 22.5°, abaft the beam on either side of the ship.

These values align with the Collision Regulations definition of an overtaking vessel, and the masthead light sectors.

Collision Regulations Rule 13(b)-Overtaking

“A vessel shall be deemed to be overtaking when coming up with another vessel from a direction of more than 22.5 abaft her beam, that is, in such a position in reference to the vessel she is overtaking, that at night  she would be able to see only the strern light of that vessel but neither of her sidelights.”

Bridge of a ship in Bidston Docks

How big should the field of vision be from the bridge wings?

  • An  arc at least 225°, that is from at least 45° on the opposite bow through right ahead and then from right ahead to right astern through 180° on the same side of the ship
  • The ship’s side shall be visible from the bridge wing

What should the horizontal field of vision be from the main steering position?

Over an arc from right ahead to at least 60° on each side of the ship.

An old Tug's bridge windowThe Bridge Windows

How tall should bridge windows be?

  • The lower edge of the navigation bridge front windows above the bridge deck shall be kept as low as possible.
  • In no case shall the lower edge present an obstruction to the forward view as required in the regulation.
  •  The upper edge of the navigation bridge front windows shall allow a forward view of the horizon, for a person with a height of eye of 1.8 metres above the bridge deck at the conning position, when the ship is pitching in heavy seas.

What are the requirements of bridge Windows?

  • The bridge front windows shall be inclined from the vertical plane top out, at an angle of not less than 10° and not more than 25°.
  •  Framing between navigation bridge windows shall be kept to a minimum and not be installed immediately forward of any work station.
  • Polarised and tinted windows shall not be fitted.
  •  A clear view through at least two of the navigation bridge front windows shall be provided.

Ballast water exchange and bridge visibility

When can ballast water exchange be conducted?

  • When the master has determined that it is safe to do so and takes into consideration any increased blind sectors or reduced horizontal fields of vision resulting from the operation to ensure that a proper lookout is maintained at all times
  • When the exchange is conducted in accordance with the ship’s ballast water management plan
  • The commencement and termination of the operation are recorded in the ship’s record of navigational activities as required by regulation 28

Conning position is a  place on the bridge with a commanding view and which is used by navigators when commanding, manoeuvring and controlling a ship.

Additional requirements of MSC 982

MSC982

MSC Circ 982 contains guidelines on ergonomic criterial for bridge equipment and layout. These guidelines support Regulation 15 of SOLAS chapter V.

Click here to view MSC Circ 982 on the IMO website>

Some of these guidelines are summarised below.

Field of Vision around the Ship

There should be a field of vision around the vessel of 360° obtained by an observer moving within the confines of the wheelhouse.

Therefore, by moving around the bridge it should be possible to see all around the vessel.

Navigating and Manoeuvring Workstation

An old tug's rear bridge windows

Over an arc of not less than 225°, that is from right ahead to not less than 22.5°, abaft the beam on either side of the ship

Monitoring Workstation

At least over an arc from 90°  from 22.5 on the port bow, through forward, to 22.5° abaft the beam on starboard bow.

Bridge Wing

Should extend over an arc at least 225°, that is at least 45° on the opposite bow through right ahead and then from right ahead to right astern through 180° on the same side of the ship

Main Steering Position

From right ahead to at least 60° on each side of the ship.

Bridge wings should be provided out to the maximum beam of the ship. The view over the ship’s side should not be obstructed.

WindowsBridgeCool

Lower Edge of the Front Window

The height of the lower edge of the front windows should allow a forward view over the bow for a person in a sitting position at the workstation for navigating and manoeuvring and the workstation for monitoring.

Removable Sunscreens

To ensure a clear view and to avoid reflections in bright sunshine, sunscreens with minimum colour distortion should be provided at all windows. Such screens should be readily removable and not permanently installed.

Glass Characteristics

Polarized and tinted windows should not be fitted.


wpid-wp-1413749817712.jpegA Really Handy Book to Learn the Collision Regulations

Available in Kindle Format at a Handy Price

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Guidelines for Navigational Bridge design

A ships wheel House and bridge wingWhat does MSC Circ 982 cover?

A handy guide

The last post covered the navigation bridge design principles as
required by SOLAS V; this post goes into more detail into how these principles are applied.



MSC Circ 982 contains guidelines on ergonomic criterial for bridge equipment and layyout. These guidelines support Regulation 15 of SOLAS chapter V. The
guidelines are designed to support watchkeeping by a user-centered design of the bridge layout and its equipment. This  post gives an overview of the scope of the guidelines, an overview that will assist in identifying what elements of a bridge are included.

What are the elements of navigation bridge design covered in MSC/Circ 982?

Click here for a copy of MSC Circ 982>

What are the navigation bridge workstations?

A workstation is combination of all job related items for certain tasks; this
includes devices equipment and furnitiure.

  • Navigating and manoeuvring– The main workstation for
    shiphandling
  • Monitoring-The position from which equipment and
    environment can be observed
  • Manual steering-Helmsman’s position
  • Docking-Bridge wings
  • Planning and documentation-Postion used for route
    planning, fixing and documention
  • Saftey-Workstation for monitering safety systems
  • Communications– Workstation for operating GMDSS

Appendix 2 of MSC 982 conatains lists of equipment that should be at each
workstation.

What are the factors regarding bridge layout?

These are the factors that determine where all the key items should be placed
on a bridge.

  • Sight– Field of vision, blind sectors,windows,
    suncreens
  • Arrangement-Bridge dimensions, view of the deck, window
    access, workstation position, communications
  • Accessibility and movement– clear routes, passageway
    dimensions

Some of these factors play an important role in mantaining a lookout (COLREG
Rule 5), and therefore will be looked at in a bit more detail in another post.

What are the elements covered in the work
enviroment?

These are factors that can influence the quality of bridge watchkeeping.

  • Climate-Temprature, humidity
  • Ventilation and Air-conditioning– Air disharges, air
    velcities
  • Noise and Acoustics– levels of noise
  • Vibration-Levels of vibration
  • Illumination and Lighting-Level of lighting, dark
    adaptation, contrast, adjustability, glare, reflection
  • Occupational Safety-non-slip, sharp edges, hand rails,
    safety equipment marking

Bridge of a Fyffe ship

What does MSC cover regarding the workstation
Layout?

Without such guidelines the layout of workstations can be chaotic, inconsistent
and difficult to use.

  • Consoles-Area, viewing angles, heights, leg room, chart
    table dimensions, chair design
  • Devices,Control and Display Integration– Logical
    arrangement, consistency, locations, high priority displays
  • Arrangement and Grouping of Controls-Pacement, location
    of primary controls, consitency, spacing
  • Display Arrangement-Field of view, viewing area
  • Labelling of Controls and Displays-Functional
    labelling, terminology
  • Lighting of Devices-Dimming,



What guidelines are contained regarding alarms?

  • Alarm Management– Alarm acknowledgement, fire and
    emergency alarms, power failure, alarm status, testing, presentation, modes
  • Visual Alarms-Discrimination, presentation, flash rate,
    night vision
  • Audible Alarms– Use of audible alarms, sound characteristic, sound
    pressure, frequency

What do the guidelines cover regarding Input devices?

  • Movement of Controls- Direction of control
  • Corresponding movements-Consistent with related
    movement
  • Return to Navigation monitering mode-Single operator
    action only to revert from planning mode
  • Minimal User Actions– Actions used to be simlple,
    minimum number of actions required
  • Feedback– Visual, auditory oe mechanical feedback
    provided to indicate imput
  • Operation of controls– Easy to identify and operate
  • Accessibility– Most important/frequently used functions
    easily visible and accessible
  • Operation of controls for Important functions- Require
    only single action
  • Assignment of controls of Important functions-Should be
    assigned to only one functionn
  • Accidental input-Designed to prevent accidental
    manipulation

Bridge wing of a ferry

What topics are covered regarding Information
Display?

  • General Display Requirements-Lack of ambiguity, use of
    digital displays, updating information, information duration, simplicity,
    uncluttered displays, important information, graphic display, scale,
    distance judgement
  • Arrangement of Visual Information-Screen organization,
    grouping of information, group demarcation, consistency
  • Visual Display Units (VDU)-Night vision, dat and night
    legibility, background colour, resolution, contrast, luminance, flicker,
    continuity, linearity
  • Coding and Highlighting-Highlighting selected data,
    flash coding for alarms, colour discrimination, colour difference, standard
    shapes
  • Display Elements-Font, abberviations, units of
    measurement, icons, size of symbols and icons, highlighting, scaling
    intervals, scale expansion, grid displays

What does the guidelines on Interactive Control
cover?

  • General User Input Guidelines-Consitent procedures,
    standard procedures, consistent wording, unnessary information entry,
    available options
  • User Input Formats-Logical order, consistent menu
    design, minimal steps in meny selection, return to high level menus, return
    to general menu, menu titles, on/off items, form filling entry
  • System Operational Information-system status, mode,
    status of sensors, planned and actual data, position information sources,
    simulated operations
  • System Response-standard display location, familar
    wording, periodic feedback, warnings, error messages, on-line guidance
  • Prevention/Detection/Correction of Errors– Protection
    of data loss, segregating real and simulated data

Further Information Sources

Some of the factors mentioned in the post have significance to officer of the watches, and those factors I will explore in the next posting.

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SOLAS V and Navigational Bridge Design

Container Ship Bridge at Portsmouth

A Handy Summary

This series of posts on SOLAS V, Safety of navigation now explores a group of regulations concerned with the navigational bridge. 

What Regulation covers Navigational Bridge Design?

SOLAS Regulation 15 – ‘Principles Relating to Bridge Design, Design and Arrangement of Navigational Systems and Equipment and Bridge Procedures.‘ The principles in this Regulation must be taken into account when complying with the following SOLAS regulations:

  • 19-Carriage requirements for shipborne navigational systems and equipment
  • 22-Navigation bridge visibility
  • 24-Use of heading and/or track control systems
  • 25-Operation of main source of electrical power and steering gear
  • 27-Nautical charts and nautical publications
  • 28-Records of navigational activities and daily reporting

These regulations will be covered in later posts.

What are the principles of Navigational Bridge Design?

Bridge of a Fyffe ship

Bridge design must:

Appraisal-Facilitate the tasks to be performed by the bridge team and the pilot in making full appraisal of the situation and in navigating the ship safely under all  conditions.

Bridge Resources-Promote effective and safe bridge resource management.

Information access-Enable the bridge team and the pilot to have convenient and continuous access to essential information.

Information presentation-Present information in a clear and unambiguous manner, using standardized symbols for controls and displays.

Status indication-Indicate the operational status of automated functions and integrated components and systems.

Decision making-Allow for expeditious, continuous and effective information processing and decision-making by the bridge team and the pilot.

Distractions-Prevent or minimize excessive or unnecessary work and any conditions or distractions on the bridge which may cause fatigue or interfere with the vigilance of the bridge team and the pilot.

Human error-Minimize the risk of human error and detecting such error, if it occurs, through monitoring and alarm systems, in time for the bridge team and the pilot to take appropriate action.

Click here for the UK MCA guidance on Regulation 15, and the text of the regulation> 

Rule 5 of the Collision Regulations

These design principles support the most important rule in the COLREGS, Rule 5

“Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight an

Click to view this Handy Revision Guide for Kindle on Amazon

d hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and or the risk of collision.”

Where to look for more detailed information

The broad principles of Regulation 15 will be expanded with some practical detail in tne next post when I dig into Circular 982.


Further Reading

To find copies of the Bridge Procedures Guide on Amazon click here>

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The Pilot ladders and accommodation The Pilot ladder-Accommodation ladder combination

Pilot boat bowA handy revision guide to pilot boarding specifications

This series of posts based on SOLAS V continues to explore some of the details behind Regulation 23, Pilot Transfer arrangements. This time exploring the specifications within Resolution A.1045(27) covering combined accommodation ladder/Pilot ladder arrangements.

Why would a combined arrangement be required?

In accordance with SOLAS V an accommodation ladder shall be used in conjunction with the pilot ladder, or other equally safe and convenient means, whenever the distance from the surface of the water to the point of access to the ship is more than 9 m.

The IMO Resolution A.1045(27) contains the specializations for pilot transfer arrangements. This is available online from the IMO. Click here to download>

Accommodation ladders, together with any suspension arrangements or attachments
fitted and intended for use in accordance with this recommendation, should be to the
satisfaction of the flag state.

Angles

  • The length of the accommodation ladder should be sufficient to ensure that its angle of slope does not exceed 45°
  • In ships with large draft ranges, several pilot ladder hanging positions may be provided, resulting in lesser angles of slope
  • The lower platform of the accommodation ladder should be in a horizontal position
    and secured to the ship’s side when in use
  • Intermediate platforms, if fitted, should be self-levelling
  • Treads and steps of the accommodation ladder should be so designed that an adequate and safe foothold is given at the operative angles.

Dimensions

  • The accommodation ladder should be at least 600 mm in width.
    The lower platform should be a minimum of 5m above sea level
  • The pilot ladder should be rigged immediately adjacent to the lower platform of the
    accommodation ladder and the upper end should extend at least 2 m above the lower platform
  • The horizontal distance between the pilot ladder and the lower platform should be between 0.1 and 0.2 m

Fittings

  • The ladder and platform should be equipped on both sides with stanchions and rigid
    handrails, but if handropes are used they should be tight and properly secured
  • The vertical space between the handrail or handrope and the stringers of the ladder should be securely fenced.
  • If a trapdoor is fitted in the lower platform to allow access from and to the pilot
    ladder, the aperture should not be less than 750 mm x 750 mm
  • The trapdoor should open upwards and be secured either flat on the embarkation platform or against the rails at the aft end or outboard side of the platform and should not form part of the handholds

Really Handy Books Revision Guides for Kindle

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Pilot ladders- a quick guide to their specifications

PilotName

The last post covered the pilot boarding arrangements required by SOLAS V, this post delves a bit deeper into the detail with a summary of some of the specifications and dimensions of pilot ladders.

Where can the requirements for pilot ladders be found?

The IMO Resolution A.1045(27) contains the specializations for pilot ladders. This is available online from the IMO. Click here to download>

ISO 799:2004, Ships and marine technology – Pilot ladders

SOLAS also requires compliance with this International Standards Orginisation standard.

“ISO 799:2004 specifies requirements for a ship’s pilot ladder which is provided to enable a maritime pilot to embark and disembark a ship safely along a vertical portion of the ship’s hull. It is applicable to merchant ships which embark and disembark maritime pilots with the ship underway. National maritime safety administrations are urged to accept ladders complying with ISO 799:2004 on their ships, as complying fully with the requirements of the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), as amended.” ISO Website

Click here for a summary of the standard on the ISO website> 

Click here to buy ISO 799:2004 on Amazon>

What are the requirements of Pilot Ladder steps?

Material

  • If made of hardwood, they should be made in one piece, free of knots
  • If made of material other than hardwood, they should be of equivalent strength, stiffness and durability to the satisfaction of the Administration
  • The four lowest steps may be of rubber of sufficient strength and stiffness or other material to the satisfaction of the Administration
  • They should have an efficient non-slip surface

Dimensions

  • They should be not less than 400 mm between the side ropes, 115 mm wide and 25 mm in depth, excluding any non-slip device or grooving
  • They should be equally spaced not less than 310 mm or more than 350 mm apart
  • They should be secured in such a manner that each will remain horizontal

Replacement steps

  • No pilot ladder should have more than two replacement steps which are secured in position by a method different from that used in the original construction of the ladder
  •  Any steps so secured should be replaced as soon as reasonably practicable by steps secured in position by the method used in the original construction of the pilot ladder
  •  When any replacement step is secured to the side ropes of the pilot ladder by means of grooves in the sides of the step, such grooves should be in the longer sides of the step

Spreaders

  • Pilot ladders with more than five steps should have spreader steps not less than 1.8 m long provided at such intervals as will prevent the pilot ladder from twisting
  • The lowest spreader step should be the fifth step from the bottom of the ladder and the interval between any spreader step and the next should not exceed nine steps

What are the requirements for pilot ladder ropes and lines?

Retrieval line

  • When a retrieval line is considered necessary, the line should be fastened at or above the last spreader step and should lead forward. The retrieval line should not hinder the pilot nor obstruct the safe approach of the pilot boat
  • A permanent marking should be provided at regular intervals  throughout the length of the ladder in order to assist in the rigging of the ladder to the required height

Ropes

  • The side ropes of the pilot ladder should consist of two uncovered ropes not less than 18 mm in diameter on each side and should be continuous, with no joints and have a breaking strength of at least 24 Kilo Newtons per side rope
  •  The two side ropes should each consist of one continuous length of rope, the midpoint half-length being located on a thimble large enough to accommodate at least two passes of side rope
  • Side ropes should be made of manila or other material of equivalent strength, durability, elongation characteristics and grip which has been protected against  degradation and is satisfactory to the Administration
  •  Each pair of side ropes should be secured together both above and below each step with a mechanical clamping device properly designed for this purpose, or seizing method with step fixtures (chocks or widgets), which holds each step level when the ladder is hanging freely. The preferred method is seizing

 

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